Book detail

A.N. Saha's The West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955
Author: Sukumar Ray
Edition: 9th Edition
Year of publication: 2019
No. of pages: 793
ISBN: 9788171773480
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1250.00
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Related interest

The Land Reforms Act 1955 was enacted to remove the impediments and encumbrances to increase agricultural production and to impose the ceiling on land holding. To meet the needs of changing situations,  the Act was amended time to time for making the Act more workable and to fulfil the prime object of the legislators, viz. to distribute surplus land among the landless and also to protect the interest of the bargadar to reduce the differences between the haves and have-nots.
Amendments incorporated
The law is not static, it is running fast to fulfil the need of citizen or demand of the society. The West Bengal Land Reforms Act got amended many times in the recent past. In the instant edition those amended provisions including the amendment regarding land rights of the enclave dwellers in Cooch Behar District are discussed at length. The work deals elaborately inter alia with the definition of bargadar, provisions as to revenue, law of pre-emption, recording of bargadar, protection of bargadar, disposal of mutation petitions, revision of record of rights, determination of ceiling area, settlement of disputes relating to cultivation and harvesting.
Issues discussed
There are many critical issues in the West Bengal Land Reforms Act. In this edition almost all such critical issues are discussed in detail in the light of the judgments of the apex court and the High Court. The issues which are discussed in this edition are inter alia bona fide requirement, ceiling of holding, constitutional validity of different provisions of the Act, delegated legislation, holdings, jurisdiction, non-agricultural tenancy, pre-emption, rights and duties of raiyat, record of rights, revenue, Scheduled Tribes, settlement of  khas land, transfer of holding and notice.
This updated edition of this work on land reforms covers almost all the important and complicated issues of law and their probable resolutions.               

•  Provisions as to revenue
•  Disposal of mutation petition
•  Determination of ceiling area
•  Rights and duties of a raiyat
•  Revision of record of rights

Introduction........................................................................................................ 1
The West Bengal Land  Reforms Act 1955
Preamble........................................................................................................... 13
Chapter I
Preliminary
Section
      1  Short title, extent and commencement..................................................... 13
          Territorial operation of the Act............................................................... 14
          Commencement...................................................................................... 14
          Commencement of provisions added or amended
of substituted by  Amending Act of 1981............................................ 14
          Conditional legislation............................................................................ 15
   1A  Declaration as to the policy of the State.................................................. 16
          Declaration—Act to implement directive principles of
Constitution—effect ............................................................................ 16
      2  Definitions.............................................................................................. 16
          Commencement...................................................................................... 19
          Anything repugnant in the subject or context—
meaning of........................................................................................... 20
          Mode of interpretation of statute on text and context.............................. 21
          Proviso or saving clause ........................................................................ 21
          Means and includes in the definition section.......................................... 22
          Agricultural year .................................................................................... 23
          Member of family of owner of land—cannot be treated
as bargadar........................................................................................... 23
          Steward—not a bargadar......................................................................... 24
          Bargadar—not a labourer........................................................................ 24
          Conditions.............................................................................................. 24
          Position.................................................................................................. 24
          Mere cultivation—does not amount to bargadar...................................... 24
          Purchase of land by bargadar—effect..................................................... 24
Section                Page
      2  Definitions—continued
          Co-owner can be a bargadar.................................................................... 25
          Person ceases to be a bargadar on the date of enforcement
of the Act—effect................................................................................. 25
          Impact of Amendment Act 2000 and 2003............................................. 25
          No document of delivering a share of produce of land—
implication........................................................................................... 26
          Cousin (brother) cannot be declared as bargadar.................................... 26
          Surrendering barga right.......................................................................... 26
          Barga-possession of the bargadar under the erstwhile
intermediary after the vesting............................................................... 26
          Certificate............................................................................................... 27
          Collector................................................................................................. 29
          Consolidation......................................................................................... 31
          Co-sharer of a raiyat in a plot of land .................................................... 31
          Undemarcated interest in the plot of land—
not a co-sharer..................................................................................... 32
          Two or more person occupy the same plot—not
necessarily co-sharers.......................................................................... 32
          Pre-emptor not ceased to co-sharer because of occupation
of a non-adjoining portion by mutual agreement.................................. 33
          Homestead.............................................................................................. 33
          Incumbrance........................................................................................... 34
          Land....................................................................................................... 34
          Legislative history.................................................................................. 36
             Conversion of land—not permissible................................................... 37
             Impact of amended definition of land.................................................. 37
             Tank or tank-fishery cannot be equated with
      ‘bastu’ land................................................................................... 37
             Definition of land—ultra vires.............................................................. 38                                  Right to lessee                          38
             Beel can be treated as tank-fishery....................................................... 38
             Personal cultivation.............................................................................. 38
          Marriage of daughter subsequent to cut-off date—effect......................... 40
          Prescribed by rules................................................................................. 40
          Raiyat..................................................................................................... 40
          Raiyat includes person as well as institution........................................... 41
          Property hold by idol.............................................................................. 41
          Revenue.................................................................................................. 41
      3  Act to override other laws....................................................................... 42
          Scope...................................................................................................... 43
          Repeal by implication............................................................................. 44
          Repeal of State law by Union law............................................................ 46
          Overriding effect of West Bengal Land Reforms Act............................... 47
Section                Page
      3  Act to override other laws—continued
          Overriding effect and conflict between WBLR Act and
WBEA Act........................................................................................... 47
          Repeal by implication of general by special statutes................................ 48
   3A  Rights of non-agricultural tenants and under-tenants
          in non-agricultural land to vest in the State............................................. 49
          Vesting of interest of non-agricultural tenant—genesis and
history................................................................................................. 50
          Non-agricultural tenant and non-agricultural under-
tenant—meaning.................................................................................. 51
          Commencement of operation of vesting of non-
agricultural tenancy.............................................................................. 53
          Vesting of non-agricultural tenancy and non-agricultural
under-tenancy—effect.......................................................................... 53
          Non-agricultural tenant required to get tenancy renewed
on payment of salami........................................................................... 55
          Position of lessee of non-agricultural land.............................................. 55
          No retrospective operation...................................................................... 55
          Tenancy vested in the State..................................................................... 56
   3B  Special provisions in respect of any holder of land
          in acquired territory in West Bengal ....................................................... 56
          Scope .................................................................................................. 56A
          Salient features..................................................................................... 56A
          Statement of objects and reasons......................................................... 56A
          Savings................................................................................................. 56B
Chapter II
Raiyats
      4  Rights of raiyat in respect of land........................................................... 57
          Commencement...................................................................................... 59
          Scope...................................................................................................... 60
          Vesting for contravention of s. 4(4)—procedure.................................... 63
          Bargadar—no locus standi to challenge acquisition................................. 64
          Service of notice—upon whom............................................................... 64
          Heritability in regard to plot of land........................................................ 64
          Recovery of possession or rent—suit for—limitation............................. 65
          User of the land for non-agricultural purpose......................................... 65
          Agricultural purpose............................................................................... 65
          Lease, licence and manufacturing purpose.............................................. 66
          Agriculture and agricultural purpose....................................................... 66
          State Government has no authority to legislate over minor
minerals............................................................................................... 68
          Land already acquired under Land Acquisition Act—
cannot be vested under West Bengal Land Reforms Act....................... 69
          Inquiry—conducted by prescribed authority.......................................... 69
Section                Page
      4  Rights of raiyat in respect of land—continued
          Failure to cultivate without reasonable cause.......................................... 70
          Letting out the whole or any part of the plot of land............................... 70
          Rent and letting out................................................................................. 71
          User of plot of land as licence................................................................ 71
          Distinction between lease or letting out and licence................................. 71
          Interpretation of deed—determination of lease or licence....................... 73
          Service tenure......................................................................................... 74
          Opportunity to show cause and the principles of natural
justice.................................................................................................. 74
          Appeal against an order imposing penalty............................................... 76               
          Scope of second proviso .................................................................. .... 77
          Conditions.............................................................................................. 78
          Procedure............................................................................................... 78
          Scope of third proviso............................................................................ 78
          Object..................................................................................................... 78
          Conditions—To apply the proviso following conditions
must be fulfilled................................................................................... 78
          Relation between second proviso and third proviso................................ 79
          Scope of sub-section (5)......................................................................... 79
          Setting up tribunal to oust the jurisdiction of civil
court—validity..................................................................................... 80
          Constitutional validity of sub-sections (4 ) & (5)................................... 80
          Concept of co-sharer and raiyat—are different concept.......................... 80
   4A  Certain restrictions on rights of raiyats in Sadar,
          Kalimpong and Kurseong sub-divisions of
          Darjeeling district.................................................................................... 81
          Scope...................................................................................................... 81
          Appellate function of the Commissioner................................................. 82
          Not applicable in certain areas................................................................ 83
   4B  Maintenance and preservation of land.................................................... 84
          Scope...................................................................................................... 85
          Lessee directly under the State—when.................................................... 86
   4C  Permission for change of area, character or use
          of land.................................................................................................... 87
          Scope...................................................................................................... 90
          Changing area, character and use of land—need of
previous permission of Collector......................................................... 90
          Alteration of area—need of permission—vires....................................... 91
          Permission not required to fell old trees for
replacing them...................................................................................... 92
          Permission of Collector not required to fell trees.................................... 92
          Land gradually filled up and turned into a high land—
character not changed........................................................................... 93
          Restriction on use of land....................................................................... 93
Section                Page
   4C  Permission for change of area, character or use
          of land—continued
          Coversion of water body to land—permission necessary ...................... 94
          Joint Secretary cannot cancel the permission granted
by Collector......................................................................................... 94
          Agricultural land cannot be converted to non-agricultural
land to construct temple....................................................................... 94
          Land recorded as danga—no permission necessary
for change of user of land.................................................................... 94
          Scope of proviso to s. 4C(2)................................................................... 95
          Scope of s. 4C(4A)................................................................................. 95
          Scope of sub-sec. (5).............................................................................. 95
          Restoration of original character—how order  made............................... 95
          Procedure to be followed in regard to restoration of land........................ 95
          Mode of use of land .............................................................................. 95
          Scope of sub-section (6)......................................................................... 96
          Section 4C(6) not applicable—when....................................................... 96
          Scope of third proviso to sub-sec. (6) of s. 4C....................................... 96
          Object..................................................................................................... 96
          Section 4C(6) and third proviso to section 4C(6)—relation.................... 97
          Land used for residential purpose prior to coming into
operation of  s. 4C............................................................................... 97
          Ipso facto conversion of mode of user of land....................................... 97
          Construction of building on land which is Beel Maach
Chas—not permissible......................................................................... 98
          Land duly acquired under WBEA Act raiyat cannot seek
relief under ss. 4A/4B/4C of WB Land Reforms Act............................ 98
          Land acquired under WBEA Act no notice required
for taking physical possession............................................................. 98
          Prior permission—when required........................................................... 98
          Ownership cannot be determined on the basis of photostat
copy of the deed.................................................................................. 98
          Ownership—when and how determined............................................ .... 98
   4D  Offences and penalties............................................................................ 98
          Scope...................................................................................................... 99
          Drafting lapse......................................................................................... 99
          Running of petrol pump on basis of “no objection certificate”
by Additional District Magistrate—constitute no offence..................... 99
          Perfunctory investigation—effect............................................................ 99
   4E  Bar to registration................................................................................. 100
          Scope.................................................................................................... 100
      5  Transferability of plot of land of a raiyat.............................................. 100
          Scope and commencement.................................................................... 102
          Compulsory registration of transfer...................................................... 102
Section                Page
      5  Transferability of plot of land of a raiyat—continued
          Duty cast upon transferor or transferee to give notice........................... 105
          Transferability and bar of Urban Land (Ceiling and
Regulation) Act.................................................................................. 105
          Doctrine of part performance and unregistered
documents......................................................................................... 106
          Invocation by plaintiff of doctrine of part performance........................ 108
          Land acquired under Land Acquisition Act—no scope
to invoke clause of compensation originally stood in
the deed of lease................................................................................ 109
          Pleading when doctrine of part performance is invoked........................ 109
          Effective date of transfer...................................................................... 110
          Notice to prescribed authority............................................................... 112
          Notice in case of probate and confirmation of sale............................... 113
          Notice of transfers attracting the right of pre-emption........................... 113
          Non-service of notice on co-sharer of raiyat in the plot
of land—effect................................................................................... 115
          Registered cover with endorsement ‘refused’—denial
on oath—burden of proof.................................................................. 115
      6  Omitted................................................................................................. 116
      7  Limitation on mortgage of raiyati plots of land..................................... 116
          Scope.................................................................................................... 117
          Purpose of loan.................................................................................... 117
          Mortgage and charge—distinction between........................................... 118
          Mortgage and lease—distinction between.............................................. 118
          Simple mortgage, usufructuary mortgage, meaning of .......................... 119
      8  Right of purchase by co-sharer or contiguous tenant............................ 119
          Commencement and scope................................................................... 121
          Object .................................................................................................. 124
          Section if violative of fundamental rights.............................................. 125
          Actual possession of pre-emptor of the adjoining plot—
not necessary..................................................................................... 125
          Right of a pre-emptor—cannot be defeated by subsequent
acquisition of right of co-sharership.................................................. 126
          No necessity to apply principle relating to ‘holding’............................. 126
          Pre-emptor loses right in the land—effect............................................. 126
          Munsif’s pecuniary jurisdiction—relevance in
ascertaining the forum........................................................................ 126
          Contiguous tenant having common boundary....................................... 127
          Composite application and single deposit for pre-emption
by two or more adjoining raiyats........................................................ 128
          Contiguous raiyat or bargadar of different district—
pre-emption by.................................................................................. 129
Section                Page
      8  Right of purchase by co-sharer or contiguous
          tenant—continued
          Pre-emption application—dismissal for default—
bar of fresh application...................................................................... 130
          Valuation of land—pre-emption on the ground of vicinage................... 131
          Accrual of the right of pre-emption....................................................... 131
          Right of pre-emptor accrued to pre-empt a particular way..................... 135
          Deposit of amount................................................................................ 135
          Short deposit of money with application under s. 8—
effect.................................................................................................. 135
          Applicant with short deposit cannot claim decision
on merit............................................................................................. 135
          Entire plot of land transferred by three separate deeds—
adjoining land owner not entitled to claim pre-emption...................... 135
          Right of pre-emption when accures....................................................... 135
          Purchase of entire plot—effect.............................................................. 136
          Application for pre-emption before registration.................................... 136
          Oral sale not pre-emptible..................................................................... 137
          Right to pre-empt existence till decision essential................................. 137
          Transfer for consideration (sale) is only pre-emptible.......................... 138
          Co-sharer of holding’s right to pre-empt on the ground of
vicinage.............................................................................................. 138
          Partial pre-emption............................................................................... 139
          Joinder of several transferees in one proceeding................................... 139
          Pre-emption in respect of land of any description................................. 139
          Pre-emption in respect of homestead land............................................ 140
          Pre-emption application under the W.B. Non-agricultural
Tenancy Act—fate of......................................................................... 141
          Pre-emption in respect of tank.............................................................. 143
          Sold a portion of a tank to outsider without notifying
other co-sharers................................................................................. 144
          Sale to stranger as also co-sharer—effect.............................................. 144
          Decree for specific performance of sale—pre-emption
application after decree...................................................................... 145
          Demarcated portion of land sold—no pre-emption .............................. 145
          Transfer of entire land—no right of pre-emption.................................. 145
          Entire land transferred to third party other than raiyat.......................... 145
          Two properties in question are contiguous—pre-emption
applicable........................................................................................... 146
          Suit property—dwelling house.............................................................. 146
          Period of limitation when begin to run in case of
non-notifed co-sharer........................................................................ 146
          Question of title cannot be decided....................................................... 147
          Matter decided pending substitution application—
validity .............................................................................................. 147
          Vesting of the estate and the right of pre-emption................................. 147
Section                Page
      8  Right of purchase by co-sharer or contiguous
          tenant—continued
          Pre-emption—vis-a-vis partition of property........................................ 149
          Pre-emption—vis-a-vis recording of name in ROR............................... 151
          Deposit of pre-emption money............................................................. 151
          Word “or” between words “share and portion”—
implication......................................................................................... 152
          Original owner sold demarcated portion to pre-emptor
and subsequently sold remaining portion to
pre-emptor—effect............................................................................. 152
          Third party purchased well-demarcated portion of
land—not a co-sharer......................................................................... 152
          Transfer of land by way of gift............................................................. 153
          Joint application by two brother—not maintainable.............................. 153
          Court’s power to extend the time for deposit........................................ 153
          Minor’s right to pre-empt..................................................................... 155
          Limitation for pre-emption................................................................... 156
          Decree declaring sale deed void—does not affect
subsisting right of pre-emption.......................................................... 158
          No registered deed of partition—effect................................................. 158
          Pre-emption in respect of land covered by Urban Land
Ceiling and Regulation Act................................................................. 158
          Land cannot be described as an undemarcated
land—when........................................................................................ 158
          Pre-emption in case of transfer of tank................................................. 159
          Pre-emption in case of land situated within municipal
area at Raiganj.................................................................................... 159
          No defence of wrong description of suit land....................................... 159
          Pre-emptor—how long remains a co-sharer.......................................... 160
          Application not maintainable beyond period of limitation..................... 160
          Section 5, Limitation Act—applicability in pre-emption
proceeding......................................................................................... 160
          Co-owner of adjoining land filed application for pre-
emption against stranger-purchaser.................................................... 161
          Sale to stranger—who will get priority.................................................. 161
          Limitation period of four months—how to be calculated...................... 161
          Principle of equity—not applicable....................................................... 161
          Registration of sale deed not completed................................................ 162
          Pre-emption application—not barred by limitation................................ 162
          Order without considering materials on record and
provisions of law—not sustainable.................................................... 162
          Separate land with separate entity—application for
pre-emption not lie............................................................................. 162
          Munsif, before allowing the order of pre-emption
under s. 8 of the Act of 1955, not required
to determine the ceiling area............................................................... 163
Section                Page
      8  Right of purchase by co-sharer or contiguous
          tenant—continued
          “Subject to the limit mentioned in s. 14 M”—how to be
interpreted.......................................................................................... 163
          Conversion of application  one under s. 8,  WBLR Act—
permissible........................................................................................ 163
          Specific averment regarding share or portion of land
must be raised at first opportunity..................................................... 164
          Right by adjoining land owner.............................................................. 164
          Pre-emptor being co-owner of contiguous plot of land file
application for pre-emption................................................................ 164
          Position of non-notified co-sharers and raiyat having land
adjoining plot of land......................................................................... 164
          Starting point of limitation in case of application for
pre-emption filed by non-notified co-sharer...................................... 165
          Estoppel on transferee.......................................................................... 165
          Waiver of the right of pre-emption........................................................ 167
          Parties to proceeding for pre-emption................................................... 168
          Amendment of pre-emption application................................................ 170
          Pre-emption application, amendment to include
a ground known from before............................................................. 170
          Determination of ceiling area of pre-emptor.......................................... 171
          Refund of pre-emption money.............................................................. 172
          Cases where the right is not available.................................................... 173
          Pre-emptee—when is a co-sharer by previous purchase....................... 174
          Land covered by Urban Land Ceiling Act—claim under
WBLR Act maintainable..................................................................... 175
          Claim for pre-emption on the ground of vicinage—
when succeeds................................................................................... 175
          Right of pre-emption of a co-sharer upon other co-sharer.................... 175
          Right exist not only on the date of sale but also
on the date of application................................................................... 175
          Purchased by two transaction and application during
second transaction—not maintainable................................................ 176
          Petitioner not a raiyat—effect................................................................ 176
          Applicable in area where land situated within urban
agglomeration..................................................................................... 176
          Existence of strip of land in between disputed land and
 pre-emptor’s land—not stand in the way.......................................... 177
          Owner sold demarcated portion to different purchases—
not a co-sharer................................................................................... 177
          Right of undivided co-sharer in plot of land......................................... 178
          Fact of denial of ownership of contiguous land—local
investigation necessary...................................................................... 178
Section                Page
      8  Right of purchase by co-sharer or contiguous
          tenant—continued
          Period of limitation for filing application for pre-emption
by non-notified co-sharer.................................................................. 178
          Change of law during pendency of pre-emption proceeding.................. 178
      9  Munsif to allow the application and apportion
          lands in certain cases............................................................................ 179
          Commencement and scope................................................................... 180
          Revenue Officer’s power to grant injunction......................................... 181
          Munsif’s power to grant injunction....................................................... 181
          Consideration money—when to be paid............................................... 182
          Application filed without deposit of money—not
maintainable....................................................................................... 182
          Assessment of consideration money—procedure ................................ 182
          Pre-emption against a successor of transferee....................................... 183
          Pre-emption of several transfers by one application............................. 183
          Additional evidence—when required.................................................... 183
          Pre-emption of different plot of lands by one transfer.......................... 184
          Any other sum paid by the pre-emptee................................................. 184
          Sectional heading—erroneous—effect.................................................. 184
          Appeal against pre-emption order......................................................... 185
          Revision not lie..................................................................................... 185
          Application be decided in accordance with law as it
stood on the date of filing of application for pre-emption.................. 186
          Revision before High Court­­—maintainable........................................... 186
          Deposit of 10% of consideration money along with pre-
emption application............................................................................ 186
          Transfer of appeal to Subordinate Judge or Addl. D.J. ......................... 186
          Revisability of order in appeal by District Judges................................. 187
          Appeal transferred to Subordinate Judge—validity............................... 187
          Actual amount of consideration paid by transferee—
mode of proof.................................................................................... 188
          Filing of application under s. 9—effect................................................. 188
          Improper deposit of consideration money and striking out
defence of pre-emptee—­not permissible............................................ 188
          Non-deposit of consideration money mentioned in deed—
not fatal.............................................................................................. 189
          Power to condone delay ....................................................................... 189
          Munsif—a civil court and not a persona designata............................... 189
          Addition of party—effect...................................................................... 189
          Transposition from plaintiff to defendant—permissible....................... 189
Section                Page
    10  Consequences of an order for transfer.................................................. 190
          Commencement and scope................................................................... 190
          Consequence of pre-emption order....................................................... 190
          Suit for specific performance against pre-emptor.................................. 191
    11  Omitted................................................................................................. 191
    12  Land gained by recess of river or sea................................................... 191
          Commencement and scope................................................................... 191
    13  Omitted................................................................................................. 193
    14  Partition of plot of land among co-sharers of a raiyat
          in plot of land....................................................................................... 194
          Commencement.................................................................................... 195
          Scope.................................................................................................... 195
          When comes into play.......................................................................... 197
          Parties in a suit for partition.................................................................. 197
          Mode of partition.................................................................................. 198
          Properties in a suit for partition............................................................ 198
          Partition—reopening of......................................................................... 199
Chapter IIA
Restrictions on Alienation of Land
by Scheduled Tribes
          Legislative competence......................................................................... 200
14A  Provisions of Chapter IIA to override other
          provisions of this Act........................................................................... 200
14B  Restrictions on alienation of land by Scheduled Tribes......................... 200
          Object of s. 14B.................................................................................... 201
          Scope.................................................................................................... 201
          Restoration—meaning........................................................................... 201
          Scheduled Tribes.................................................................................. 201
14C  Modes of transfer of land by Scheduled Tribes.................................... 203
          Scope.................................................................................................... 205
          Transfer to Non-Scheduled Tribe—when valid..................................... 206
          Sections 14B and 14C—not applicable in probate
proceedings........................................................................................ 207
          Transfers in violation of the amended provision prior
to the amendment............................................................................... 207
          Transfer in violation of Chapter IIA and doctrine
of part performance........................................................................... 208
Section                Page
14D   Transfer in contravention of Chapter IIA shall not
          be valid unless registered...................................................................... 209
          Scope.................................................................................................... 209
          Answer to reference—appealability...................................................... 210
14E  Power to Revenue Officer to set aside improper
          transfers by raiyat................................................................................. 210
          Scope.................................................................................................... 212
          Transfer—condition precedent to the power
of Revenue Officer............................................................................. 213
          Vires of the provision........................................................................... 213
          Restoration........................................................................................... 214
  14F  Restriction on the sale of raiyat’s plot of land or
          any portion thereof............................................................................... 214
          Scope.................................................................................................... 214
14FF  Benami transaction or instrument to be void......................................... 215
          Scope.................................................................................................... 215
14G  Power to the Revenue Officer to settle or sell
               plot of land for realization of certificate dues..................................... .. 215
          Scope.................................................................................................... 216
14H  Appeal and revision.............................................................................. 217
          Appeal against the order made under ss. 14C, 14E &
14G—forum ..................................................................................... 217
          Condonation of delay in filing appeal................................................... 218
14HH Setting aside of sale of land of a raiyat belonging to
          a Schedule Tribe................................................................................... 219
          Scope.................................................................................................... 219
14-I  Bar to suits........................................................................................... 219
          Scope.................................................................................................... 220
          Fraud.................................................................................................... 220
          Jurisdiction........................................................................................... 220
Chapter IIB
Ceiling on Land held by a Raiyat
          Commencement.................................................................................... 223
          Constitutionality................................................................................... 224
          Reduction of ceiling limit—infringement of right to life
livelihood and property...................................................................... 226
          Scope.................................................................................................... 230
  14J  Provisions of Chapter IIB to have overriding effect.............................. 231
          Scope.................................................................................................... 231
          Vacant land—outside vesting under the Act.......................................... 231
Section                Page
14K  Definitions............................................................................................ 235
          Family.................................................................................................. 237
          Area of land retained in a wakf property............................................... 240
          Coparcenary as a family unit................................................................ 240
          Adopted child—status in family........................................................... 241
          Unmarried daughter—inclusion of in the family of raiyat..................... 241
          Family—raiyat having more than one wife............................................ 242
          Wife and children of void marriage—status in the family
of the raiyat........................................................................................ 242
          Family members—actual possession necessity..................................... 243
          Orchard................................................................................................ 243
          Standard hectare................................................................................... 244
14L  No raiyat to hold land in excess of the ceiling area............................... 244
          Scope.................................................................................................... 244
          Adverse or permissive possessor—right to retain................................. 244
14M Ceiling area............................................................................................. 245
          Determination of ceiling area—relevant date......................................... 247
          Irrigability of land and determination of ceiling area............................. 247
          Computation of ceiling area.................................................................. 248
          No right of retention of subsequent lessee on expiry
of term of lease.................................................................................. 249
          Determination of ceiling area—factors.................................................. 249
          Determination of ceiling area—notice of hearing to
post-vesting transferee....................................................................... 250
          Trust or endowment—mode of computation of ceiling......................... 251
          Ceiling area for deity............................................................................. 253
          Raiyat in wakf property—who is.......................................................... 254
          Benefit of higher ceiling not applicable to private
debuttar.............................................................................................. 254
          Nature of trust or endowment determination
by Revenue Officer............................................................................ 254
          Adjudication under s. 6, WBEA Act and ceiling
determination proceeding under the Act—bar of
res judicata........................................................................................ 256
          Determination of ceiling area under s. 4(3) and
determination afresh under Chapter IIB—bar
of res judicata.................................................................................... 256
14N  Determination of irrigated area.............................................................. 257
          Determination of irrigated area—mode................................................. 257
14-O  Appeal.................................................................................................. 257
          Scope.................................................................................................... 258
Section                Page
  14P  Land transferred after the 7th day of August, 1969
          to be taken into account in determining the ceiling
          area....................................................................................................... 258
          Scope.................................................................................................... 259
          Shall presume to be not bona fide—implication.................................... 260
          Transfer after 7.8.1969 but in pursuance of specific
performance of decree, before........................................................... 260
          Execution before 7.8.1969—registration after—effect.......................... 261
          Transfer after the crucial date in pursuance of family
arrangement....................................................................................... 261
14Q  Ceiling area in special cases.................................................................. 262
          Legislative background......................................................................... 263
          Drafting lapse....................................................................................... 263
          Scope of sub-section (3)....................................................................... 263
          Major son of Muslim raiyat.................................................................. 264
          Deletion by amending Act 2003—effect............................................... 264
          Amendment and repeal—distinction..................................................... 264
14R  Exemption............................................................................................ 264
  14S  Vesting of land in excess of ceiling area............................................... 265
          Vesting of land of owner executing a deed of transfer.......................... 265
          Bargadar—right in land vested under Chapter IIB................................. 266
          Right of post vesting purchaser............................................................. 267
          Relevant date for determination of ceiling area
of non-agricultural land...................................................................... 267
14SS  Power to enter upon and take possession of
          vested land........................................................................................... 267
14T  Duty of raiyat to furnish return............................................................. 268
          Determination of ceiling area by Revenue Officer................................. 270
          Review of order on vesting of land....................................................... 271
          Power to further review........................................................................ 272
          Mere issuance of notice for hearing regarding clubbing
land of the deity with lands of notice—writ not
maintainable....................................................................................... 272
          Transfer in favour of bargadar—not exempted from
pre-emption....................................................................................... 273
          Manner of taking possession of vested land under s. 14SS.................. 273
          Adjudication of question of benami...................................................... 274
          Nature of trust or endowment determination by Revenue
Officer—tests..................................................................................... 276
          Endowment in favour of family deity................................................... 277
          No limitation to initiate proceeding suo motu........................................ 277
          Initiation of suo motu action by Revenue Officer.................................. 278
Section                Page
14U  Restriction on transfer of land by a raiyat............................................. 278
14V  Payment of amount............................................................................... 279
14W  Damages for use and occupation of land.............................................. 280
14X  Bar of jurisdiction of Civil Courts......................................................... 280
          Ouster of civil court’s jurisdiction........................................................ 280
14Y  Limitation on future acquisition of land by a raiyat.............................. 281
          Purpose................................................................................................ 283
          Legislative intention.............................................................................. 283
          Obligation of raiyat............................................................................... 284
          Scope of proviso.................................................................................. 284
          First proviso—invoked when............................................................... 284
          Conditions............................................................................................ 285
          Who may apply.................................................................................... 285
          When land may be acquired.................................................................. 285
          Scope of second proviso...................................................................... 285
          Consequence........................................................................................ 286
          Period of extension............................................................................... 286
          Person—meaning.................................................................................. 286
14Z  Application of Chapter IIB.................................................................... 286
          Scope.................................................................................................... 288
          Scope of fourth proviso........................................................................ 288
          Applicability of sub-section (2)............................................................ 289
          Section 14Z(2) of WBLR and s. 6(3), WBEA Act—relation.................. 289
          Retention of excess ceiling of land—effect........................................... 289
          Properties vested under W.B. Estate Acquisition Act—
governed by W.B. Land Reforms Act................................................. 290
          Section 14Y and s. 14Z—distinction.................................................... 290
          Constitutional validity of s. 14Z(2)....................................................... 290
          Power to revise order............................................................................ 291
          No diminution of the area of a tea garden............................................. 291
          Land under a lease................................................................................ 291
Chapter III
Bargadars
    15  Certain safeguards for plots of land cultivated
          by bargadars......................................................................................... 292
          Scope.................................................................................................... 292
          Heritability but not transfer of barga right............................................. 292
          Stop cultivation by Panchayat prodhan after death
of original bargadar............................................................................ 293
          Non-scheduled tribe bargadar under scheduled tribe
raiyat.................................................................................................. 293
Section                Page
15A  Continuation of right of cultivation on bargadar’s
          death..................................................................................................... 293
          Death of bargadar before 13th July 1970—substitution........................ 294
          Death of bargadar before 13th July 1970—heritability
of barga right...................................................................................... 294
          Power to nominate by owner................................................................ 295
          Appointment of an heir by JLRO after the prescribed
date.................................................................................................... 295
          Substitution of  heirs of bargadar under Or. 22, CPC............................ 296
          Period for determination or nomination of a lawful heir
and procedure.................................................................................... 297
          Terms and conditions for cultivation of land by
a lawful heir determined or nominated............................................... 297
          Procedure............................................................................................. 298
          Transfer of plot of land or its part—continuance of barga
right................................................................................................... 300
    16 Share of produce payable by a bargadar............................................... 301
          Commencement and scope .................................................................. 302
          Bargadar—evolution of the rights of..................................................... 303
          Bargadar’s liability of making self cultivation....................................... 306
          Kut bhag, mela bhag or adh bhag of Purulia.......................................... 306
          Tendering of the share of the produce.................................................. 308
          Barga possession after vesting.............................................................. 308
          Tender of share of produce.................................................................. 309
16A  Bargadar entitled to recover his share in certain cases........................... 311
          Scope.................................................................................................... 311
          Bargadar’s power  to recover share of produce forcibly 
harvested by the owner...................................................................... 311
    17  Termination of cultivation by bargadar................................................. 312
          Commencement.................................................................................... 313
          Scope.................................................................................................... 313
          Section 17—if ultra vires...................................................................... 314
          Officer or authority entitled to terminate barga
cultivation.......................................................................................... 315
          Representation before officer by authorised agent................................ 315
          BLLRO or Bhagchas Officer—jurisdiction to render
police help to a party.......................................................................... 315
          Termination of barga cultivation—grounds of...................................... 316
          Agricultural purpose............................................................................. 316
          Personal cultivation.............................................................................. 316
          Deposit of produce............................................................................... 317
          Implied termination of bargadarship..................................................... 317
          Protection of bargadars......................................................................... 317
          Simultaneous prayers for delivery and termination............................... 318
          Bona fide requirement.......................................................................... 319
Section                Page
    17  Termination of cultivation by bargadar—continued
          Bona fide requirement—pleading.......................................................... 320
          Suit challenging execution on ground of post order
cessation of requirement.................................................................... 321
          Death of an owner during  the pendency of eviction
proceeding for bona fide requirement................................................ 321
          Owner’s personal cultivation as a ground of
termination......................................................................................... 321
          Owner’s failure to cultivate personally after evicting
bargadar on ground of bona fide requirement.................................... 322
          Guidelines for settlement of disputes relating to
cultivation and harvesting protection to bargadars
and assignees of vested lands............................................................ 322
          Owner’s failure to cultivate due to an impossibility.............................. 324
    18  Jurisdiction to decide certain disputes................................................... 325
          Scope.................................................................................................... 327
          Adjudication holding one as bargadar independently
of a dispute under cls. (a) to (b) of s. 18(1)....................................... 329
          Appointed authority.............................................................................. 330
          The authority who will decide a dispute, question or
reference............................................................................................ 330
          Power to make interim order................................................................. 331
          Seizure of paddy by police by order of BDO or SDO........................... 331
          Bar of jurisdiction—other than appointed authority.............................. 332
          Officers or authority who are................................................................ 334
          Determination of question as to whether a person is
a bargadar or not................................................................................ 334
          Non-production of document regarding delivery of
share of produce of land.................................................................... 335
          Question of title—decision by Bhagchas Officer................................... 335
          Specification of money value in order.................................................. 336
          Limitation for application under s. 18 of the Act—
condonation of delay......................................................................... 336
          Heirs of the bargadar and outstanding dues.......................................... 338
          Non-compliance with rule 6 of WBLR (Bargadars) Rules..................... 338
          Power of restoration of a proceeding.................................................... 339
          Power under Article 226 cannot be invoked......................................... 339
          Decision of civil court—when binding.................................................. 340
          Proceeding for recording bargadar and scope
of injunction...................................................................................... 340
          Decision of Bhagchas Officer and res judicata...................................... 340
Section                Page
18A  Continuance in office of officers and authorities
          appointed under sections 17 and 18 until successor
          commences to function......................................................................... 343
          Commencement.................................................................................... 344
          Scope.................................................................................................... 344
    19  Appeal.................................................................................................. 346
          Scope.................................................................................................... 347
          Collector—if a tribunal within the meaning of Art. 227
of  Constitution.................................................................................. 348
          Collector—if a court or a persona designata......................................... 348
          Power of remand.................................................................................. 349
          Determination of question under s. 18(2)—forum of
appeal................................................................................................ 350
          Power of restoration of appeal dismissed for default ........................... 350
          Appellate Officer—right to entertain cross-objection............................ 351
          Limitation............................................................................................. 352
          Time limit for application for condonation of delay
in filing appeal................................................................................... 352
          Sufficient cause for condonation of delay in filing appeal..................... 353
          Section 5 of the Limitation Act applicable............................................. 359
          Transfer of appeal................................................................................ 360
19A  Penalty.................................................................................................. 360
          Scope.................................................................................................... 361
          Penal provision—rule of strict construction.......................................... 362
          Compounding an offence...................................................................... 362
19B  Restoration of land to bargadar............................................................. 363
          Commencement.................................................................................... 364
          Scope.................................................................................................... 364
          Termination of bhag cultivation—pre-requisite condition..................... 365
          Forfeiture clause if ultra vires............................................................... 366
          Forum of appeal against an order under the section.............................. 366
          Jurisdiction of officer to decide existence of relationship..................... 366
          Change of forum of appeal—proceeding instituted before
change—forum of appeal................................................................... 366
          Limitation for application for restoration.............................................. 367
          Limitation for appeal............................................................................ 368
    20  Procedure and execution....................................................................... 369
          Commencement and scope................................................................... 369
20A  Setting aside of order for termination of
          cultivation by bargadars........................................................................ 371
Section                Page
20B  Surrender or abandonment by bargadar................................................ 371
          Surrender or abandonment by bargadar—continuance
qua bargadar despite.......................................................................... 372
          Surrender or abandonment by bargadar—restriction on
resumption of land by owner............................................................. 372
    21  Bar of jurisdiction................................................................................. 375
          Commencement.................................................................................... 375
          Scope.................................................................................................... 376
          Automatic transfer of so called pending proceedings
under Bargadars Act 1950.................................................................. 376
          Bar of jurisdiction in pending suits in transferred
territories........................................................................................... 379
          Bar of civil court’s jurisdiction............................................................. 379
          Bargadarship—compulsory reference to Bhagchas Officer................... 383
          Reference unnecessary when the question is already
decided.............................................................................................. 388
          Question as to decision of bargadarship when arise during
course of hearing of suit for declaration—duty of court..................... 388
          Provision of compulsory reference retrospective if.............................. 388
          Binding nature of decision on reference................................................ 389
          Answer on reference—appeal, interference by power
of superintendence............................................................................. 390
          Referring court to abide by the answer to reference
on barga relationship—need of stay................................................... 391
          Proceeding before Authority void when................................................ 392
          Reference in High Court appeal or rivision stage................................... 392
          Reference in execution proceedings...................................................... 392
          Reference in temporary injunction stage............................................... 393
          Reference in proceeding under ss. 144 and 145, CrPC.......................... 394
          Jurisdiction—meaning of and general principles................................... 394
          Jurisdiction of civil court—when barred............................................... 399
          During trial question arises whether person is or is not
a bargadar  and duty of court............................................................. 399
          Exclusive jurisdiction—cannot depend on production
of the receipt of bhag produced by defendant ................................... 400
          Right of appeal...................................................................................... 400
          Power of civil court.............................................................................. 400
          Entries made in record of rights—not questioned
by civil court...................................................................................... 400
          Surrender and/or abandonment of right to cultivate by
a recorded bargadar and jurisdiction of court..................................... 400
21A  Temporary stay of proceedings for termination of
          cultivation by bargadars........................................................................ 401
Section                Page
21B  Person cultivating land of another person to be
          presumed to be a bargadar in certain cases........................................... 401
          Presumption under section 21B............................................................ 403
          Recording of name of bargadar—procedure.......................................... 403
21C  Constitution of State Land Corporation or
          Regional Land Corporation................................................................... 403
21D  Names of bargadars to be entered in
          the record-of-rights............................................................................... 405
21E  Bar to legal practitioners....................................................................... 405
          Bar to legal practitioner—adjudication of bargadar—
owner dispute.................................................................................... 406
          Manner of recording names of bargadar in the
record-of-rights.................................................................................. 407
          Publication of notice for holding spot inquiry....................................... 408
          Opportunity of hearing......................................................................... 408
          Inquiry—manner.................................................................................. 408
Chapter IV
Provisions as to Revenue
          Historical perspective........................................................................... 409
          Date of operation of Chapter IV............................................................ 410
    22  Liability to pay revenue........................................................................ 410
          Scope.................................................................................................... 410
          Land exempted from payment of revenue............................................ 410
          Scope of sub-section (2)....................................................................... 410
          First charge on land—implication......................................................... 410
    23  Determination of revenue..................................................................... 411
          Object .................................................................................................. 416
          Scope  .................................................................................................. 416
          Determination of revenue of agricultural land....................................... 416
          Activities allied to agriculture—meaning............................................... 416
          Tea garden and land used for cultivation of tea..................................... 416
          Homestead and non-agricultural land used for
non-commercial purpose................................................................... 416
          Land held by Government undertaking................................................. 416
          Land used by company........................................................................ 417
          Land used by brackish water fisheries by individual
fish farmers....................................................................................... 417
          Land held by brackish water fisheries by company.............................. 417
          Plot of land held for commercial purpose............................................. 417
Section                Page
    23  Determination of revenue—continued
          Land used under multistoried building................................................. 417
          Land used for housing complex........................................................... 417
          Land used for commercial and industial activities................................ 417
          Land used for agro-processing............................................................. 417
          Land used for commercial activities .................................................... 417
          Commercial and industrial activities—meaning..................................... 417
          Industrial activities—implication.......................................................... 418
          Land used for mills, factories or workshops........................................ 418
          Land used as brickfields....................................................................... 418
          Land  situated  within Municipal Corporation
or Municipality.................................................................................. 418
                Land used for agriculture............................................................... 418
                Land used for homesteads............................................................. 418
                Land used for mills, factories and workshops................................ 419
                Commercial and industrial activities............................................... 419
                Land used for non-agricultural purpose other than
commercial and industrial activities............................................. 420
                Classification of municipalities....................................................... 420
                Revenue for land not directly used for shops,
offices etc.................................................................................... 420
23A  Exemption............................................................................................ 421
          Object................................................................................................... 421
          Land exempted from payment of revenue............................................ 421
          “Government sponsored educational institution”—
meaning............................................................................................. 421
    24  Exemption of revenue and payment of cess and
          surcharge.............................................................................................. 422
          Object................................................................................................... 423
          Position after enforcement of the West Bengal Land
Reforms (Amendment) Act 2005....................................................... 424
          Effect of exemption  ............................................................................ 424
          Exemption in respect of which land—not permissible.......................... 424
          Liability to pay cess in respect of agricultural land—
when nil............................................................................................. 424
          Exemption—how made........................................................................ 424
          Land held by a raiyat and his family  situated in both
irrigated and non-irrigated area—determination
of area of land.................................................................................... 424
          Refund of excess payment—when made.............................................. 425
          Family—meaning.................................................................................. 425
          Irrigated area—meaning........................................................................ 425
          Appeal—by whom................................................................................ 425
Section                Page
    25  Grounds for alteration of revenue......................................................... 425
          Scope.................................................................................................... 425
          Revenue payable by raiyat—when altered............................................. 426
          Diluvion—meaning............................................................................... 426
    26  Bar to jurisdiction of Civil Court........................................................... 426
          Jurisdiction of civil court—barred........................................................ 426
          Remedy................................................................................................ 427
          Principles of ouster of jurisdiction........................................................ 427
    27  Instalment, time and place for payment of revenue............................... 428
          Scope.................................................................................................... 429
          Mode and manner of payment of revenue............................................ 429
    28  Raiyat entitled to receipt for revenue..................................................... 429
          Scope.................................................................................................... 429
          Right of raiyat....................................................................................... 429
          Essentials of receipt.............................................................................. 429
    29  Chapter IV to have overriding effect..................................................... 429
          Scope.................................................................................................... 429
          Non-obstante clause—meaning............................................................. 429
    30  Repeal  of West Bengal Act XLIV of 1979............................................ 430
          Scope.................................................................................................... 430
          Effect of repeal..................................................................................... 430
31-38 Omitted................................................................................................. 430
Chapter V
Consolidation of Lands Comprised in
plots of land and Co-operative
Farming Societies
    39  Acquisition of plots of land for consolidation...................................... 431
          Consolidation of lands.......................................................................... 431
          Power of State Government.................................................................. 432
    40  Redistribution of land after acquisition................................................. 432
    41  Transference of encumbrances on plot of land..................................... 433
    42  Recovery of the excess value of allotted land....................................... 433
    43  Formation of Co-operative Farming Societies....................................... 434
          Scope.................................................................................................... 435
          Co-operative farming society—meaning of........................................... 435
          Effect of registration ............................................................................ 436
          Acquisition of land by co-operative farming society and
restriction........................................................................................... 436
Section                Page
    44  Restriction on transfer of shares in a Co-operative
          Farming  Society................................................................................... 436
          Restriction on transfer.......................................................................... 437
    45  Dissolution of a Co-operative Farming Society..................................... 438
          Scope.................................................................................................... 438
    46  Transfer of lands on dissolution of a Co-operative
          Farming Society.................................................................................... 438
          Scope.................................................................................................... 438
    47  Revenue payable by a Co-operative Farming Society............................ 438
          Scope.................................................................................................... 438
    48  Concession and facilities for a Co-operative
          Farming Society ................................................................................... 439
          Scope.................................................................................................... 439
          Concession and facilities...................................................................... 439
48A  Formation of Co-operative Common Service Society............................ 440
          Formation of Co-operative Common Service Society............................ 441
          How to apply........................................................................................ 441
          Power to raise fund............................................................................... 441
          Right to acquisition of agricultural implements..................................... 441
          Distribution of implements among members........................................ 441
          Advancement of loan by Society.......................................................... 442
          Right to recover loan amount and interest............................................. 442
Chapter VI
Principles of Distribution of Lands
    49  Principles of distribution of lands......................................................... 443
          Settlement of Government lands—mode of.......................................... 445
          Post vesting transfer—implied recognition of tenancy
right—estoppel on State’s asserting land as vested............................. 447
          Determination of ceiling limit and right of allottee................................. 451
          Power to annul transfer......................................................................... 452
          Grounds for annulment of settlement................................................... 452
          Procedure for annulment of settlement................................................. 453
          Annulment of settlement—opportunity to show cause
and hearing........................................................................................ 454
          Opportunity of hearing before annulment............................................. 454
          Application for annulment of patta—filed before whom ...................... 455
          Hearing—when not necessary............................................................... 455
          Enquiry by Revenue Officer or by an Officer of
Subordinate Land Revenue Service and doctrine of bias.................... 455
Section                Page
    49  Principles of distribution of lands—continued
          Raiyat holding excess land—not entitled to settlement
of land............................................................................................... 457
          Vesting of trinity of power in Revenue Officer;
apprehended bias and vires of r. 20B................................................. 458
          Estates Manual—impact on settlement.................................................. 459
          Not entitled to settlement of land from Government............................. 460
          Setting aside of order of vesting—effect .............................................. 460
          Application filed villagers seeking cancellation of
settlement of land............................................................................... 460
          Application to the Tribunal without exhausting
the statutory remedy is permissible in law......................................... 461
          Sub-section (5)—not ultra vires............................................................ 461
49A  Penalty for unauthorised occupation of vested lands............................ 461
          Scope.................................................................................................... 462
          Penalty.................................................................................................. 462
Chapter VII
Maintenance of the record-of-rights
    50  Maintenance of the record-of-rights...................................................... 463
          Scope.................................................................................................... 464
          Scope of sub-section (2)....................................................................... 466
          Alteration in ROR on notice published in Gram
Panchayat Officer or conspicuous place of village—vires.................. 466
          Barga recording and prior determination............................................... 466
          Recording at the recommendation of Block Level
Advisory Committee.......................................................................... 467
          Recording of bargadar’s name through operation
barga—circular validity...................................................................... 467
          Mutation does not decide question of title............................................ 469
          Application for mutation....................................................................... 469
          Procedure for disposal of mutation petitions........................................ 469
          Principle and procedure for disposal of mutation cases........................ 470
          Inherited properties.............................................................................. 473
          No application necessary to record name of legal heirs of
recorded bargadar.............................................................................. 473
          Adjudication of easement right by Revenue Officer.............................. 474
          Revenue Officer not record name of any person as
“illegal possessor”............................................................................. 474
          Correction of record-of-rights—really consequential............................ 474
          Field enquiry report.............................................................................. 475
Section                Page
Chapter VIIA
Preparation or Revision of record-of-rights
50A  Section 50 not to apply to certain cases................................................ 476
50B  Modification of record-of-rights........................................................... 476
          Scope.................................................................................................... 477
    51  Revision or preparation of the record-of-rights..................................... 477
          Scope.................................................................................................... 478
          Procedure............................................................................................. 478
          Presumption of modified record-of-rights............................................ 479
          Jurisdiction of civil court—barred........................................................ 479
          Suit pending relating to entry in record-of-rights—effect...................... 479
          Revision of record-of-rights................................................................. 479
          Classification of land............................................................................ 480
          Scrutiny of record-of-rights.................................................................. 480
51A  Draft and final publication of the record-of-rights................................ 481
          Scope ................................................................................................... 482
          Amendment of 1974 and its impact on presumption............................ 483
          Evidentiary value of record-of-rights.................................................... 484
          Evidentiary value of draft record.......................................................... 485
          Conflict between two records................................................................ 485
          Presumption if backward...................................................................... 486
          Onus—how rebutted............................................................................. 486
          Record-of-rights—interpretation on—interference
in second appeal................................................................................ 487
          To what entries the presumption relates................................................ 487
          Presumption of record-of-rights vis-a-vis the decisions
of civil court ..................................................................................... 488
          Land recorded in ROR as agricultural—enquiry under
Urban Land (Ceiling & Regulation) Act to determine
if it is vacant land............................................................................... 489
          Presumption of correctness of ROR and enquiry as
to agricultural character under the Urban Land
(Ceiling & Regulation) Act................................................................. 490
          Operation barga and recording of bargadars’ name
in ROR............................................................................................... 490
          Recording the name of bargadar—notice to and
hearing the persons affected............................................................... 491
          Proceeding—when initiated................................................................... 492
          Recording of name of bargadar ............................................................ 492
          Recording name of bargadar in finally published ROR
by Settlement Officer only................................................................. 493
          Revision of ROR after final publication................................................ 493
          Right of appeal...................................................................................... 494
Section                Page
51B  Revision or correction of entry in record-of-rights............................... 495
          Scope.................................................................................................... 495
          Correction of entry to follow a civil adjudication.................................. 495
          Post-attestation recording of name of bargadar..................................... 496
          Parties in suo motu proceedings............................................................ 497
51BB Revision or correction of entry in record-of-rights
          before  or after final publication........................................................... 497
51C  Bar to jurisdiction of Civil Court in respect of
          certain matters...................................................................................... 497
          Scope.................................................................................................... 498
          Bar of jurisdiction when applicable....................................................... 498
          No prayer for declaration that record-of-rights
is wrong—suit not maintainable......................................................... 501
51D Omitted.................................................................................................... 501
Chapter VIII
Management of Lands
          Date of commencement of operation.................................................... 502
    52  Management of lands............................................................................ 503
          Scope.................................................................................................... 503
          Terms and conditions........................................................................... 504
52A  Provision for establishment of Government
          Company, etc........................................................................................ 504
52B  Power to enter upon or take possession of land.................................... 505
          Taking possession by State without recourse to law............................. 505
          Scope of sub-sec. (2) of s. 52B............................................................ 506
Chapter IX
Miscellaneous
    53  Delegation of powers by the State Government..................................... 508
          Scope.................................................................................................... 508
53A  Revenue Officer to be a necessary party in
          all suits, etc........................................................................................... 508
          Joinder of Revenue Officer in suits....................................................... 509
          Effect on pending suits......................................................................... 509
          Notice under s. 80, CPC against Revenue Officer.................................. 510
    54  Appeals................................................................................................ 512
          Appeal.................................................................................................. 513
Section                Page
    54  Appeals—continued
          Scope of appellate functions................................................................. 514
          Procedure for appeals........................................................................... 515
          Remand by appellate authority.............................................................. 515
          JLRO—appeal against order of Revenue Officer................................... 516
          Transfer by Appellate Collector............................................................ 516
          Correction of decision of Revenue Officer or Appellate
Authority by State Government.......................................................... 516
          Appeal lie—against orders.................................................................... 517
          Non service of enquiry report about true nature and
character of debuttar property—implication....................................... 517
          Vested land and duty of State Government........................................... 518
          Matter cannot be reagitated in appeal—when........................................ 518
          Forum under section 54 and under section 9(5)—
distinction.......................................................................................... 518
    55  Limitation for appeals........................................................................... 518
          Scope.................................................................................................... 519
          Application of the provisions of Limitation Act 1963........................... 519
    56  Power to enter upon land to make survey, etc....................................... 522
          Commencement.................................................................................... 522
          Scope.................................................................................................... 522
    57  Powers of officers dealing with proceedings under
          this Act................................................................................................. 523
          Commencement.................................................................................... 524
          Scope.................................................................................................... 524
          Inherent power of Revenue Officer....................................................... 524
          Substitution.......................................................................................... 525
          Notice issued by Revenue Officer—effect............................................ 525
          No power to grant injunction................................................................ 526
          Revenue Officer’s power to hold spot enquiry..................................... 526
57A  Vesting of powers of Civil Court under the Code of
          Civil Procedure, 1908........................................................................... 526
          Scope.................................................................................................... 526
    58  Protection of action taken under this Act.............................................. 527
          Commencement ................................................................................... 527
          Scope.................................................................................................... 527
    59  Repeal................................................................................................... 528
          Scope.................................................................................................... 528
          Repeal—effect of.................................................................................. 529
          Substantive and procedural law—effect of repeal................................. 529
          Repeal of a repealing statute.................................................................. 530
          Implied repeal—when can be inferred.................................................. 530
          Test of implied repeal........................................................................... 531
Section                Page
    60  Power to make rules............................................................................. 531
          Scope.................................................................................................... 531
          Commencement................................................................................. .. 532
          Conflict between section and rule—what to prevail............................... 532
          Rule making power, a branch of delegated legislation........................... 533
          Delegated legislation how far intra vires................................................ 533
          Retrospective rule making power.......................................................... 536
    61  Bar to jurisdiction of court.................................................................... 537
    62  Power to State Government to give directions....................................... 537
    63  Repeal and savings............................................................................... 537
          Bar of jurisdiction................................................................................. 537
          Bar of jurisdiction of civil court............................................................ 538
          Suit for declaration or partition and jurisdiction
of civil court...................................................................................... 544
          Suit for declaration that plaintiff has no excess land—not
maintainable....................................................................................... 544
          No continuance of proceedings under West Bengal
Non-Agricultural Tenancy Act—when............................................... 544
Appendices
Appendix            
      1  The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue Act, 1979.............................. 549
      2  The West Bengal Land Reforms (Bargadars)
          Rules, 1956....................................................................................... .. 560
      3  The West Bengal Land Reforms (Prescribed 
          Authority) Rules, 1964......................................................................... 571
      4  The West Bengal Land Reforms (Transfer of
          Holding) Rules, 1965............................................................................ 572
      5  The West Bengal Land Reforms Rules, 1965........................................ 574
      6  The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue Rules, 1980........................ .. 662
      7  The West Bengal Bargadars Act, 1956.................................................. 686
      8  The West Bengal Acquisition of Homestead Land for
          Agricultural Labourers, Artisans  and Fishermen
          Act, 1975.............................................................................................. 688

Sukumar Ray

LLM, Additional District & Sessions Judge, Darjeeling



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