Book detail

K.P Chakravarti's Words & Phrases Under the Constitution
Author: H.K. Saharay,  M.S. Saharay
Edition: 2nd
Year of publication: 2003
No. of pages: 784
ISBN: 8171771548
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 650.00
You pay 552.50
Related interest

Chakravarti’s Words and Phrases are culled out of their uses in the Constitution of India. Words and phrases assume colour and meaning according to the context and circumstances in which they are used. Judicial authorities in India, during the last fifty-three years or so, had chiselled to sculpture our basic document of fundamental charter by such construction and interpretation of the words and phrases therein as to incorporate the impress of different doctrines, theories, principles and propositions of law in the realm – this has already made its mark as a guide to this world of meaning.
The second edition delves into the words and phrases in the specialised context of their use in the Constitution with an added advantage. It has drawn upon the new coinages consequent on the amendments to the Constitution in the meantime. It is also enriched by the latest judicial pronouncements of the Supreme Court of India as well as the High Courts that add new dimension to the scope and meaning of the words and phrases used. Thus the present edition contains inter alia new chapters on:
•   Fundamental Rights
•   Rights of migrants
•   Free legal aids
•   Abolition of untouchability
•   Village Panchayat
•   Uniform Civil Code
•   Right to education
•   Living wages
The book commends itself as a useful companion to all readers who have to turn to the Constitution of India for various purposes and particularly the lawyers, judges, teaching institutions and defenders of justice who may try to discover new alleys for application of the constitutional safeguards and other provisions.

Chapter
       1     Interpretation of Constitution—Problem and Perspective                                             ........ 1
                Introductory................................................................................................................ 1
                Interpretation of Constitution....................................................................................... 9
                Historical and contemporaneous interpretation.......................................................... 31
                Applicability of foreign decisions and precedents in
                    constitutional interpretation.................................................................................... 35
                Construction in the light of social purpose................................................................. 40
                Harmonious construction of conflicting provision
                    and of fundamental rights and directive principles................................................. 44
                Judicial approach to constitutional interpretation in perspective................................. 48
                Conclusion................................................................................................................ 52
                Act of State................................................................................................................ 54
                Judicial precedents..................................................................................................... 54
                Authorities................................................................................................................. 55
                Ejusden Generis Rule................................................................................................ 55
                Competence of Legislature......................................................................................... 55
                Guideline principles in interpreting the Constitution.................................................. 55
                Doctrine of fraud on legislative power and doctrine of
                    fraud on Constitution............................................................................................. 55
                Doctrine of incorporation by reference...................................................................... 56
                Unconstitutionality of legislation............................................................................... 56
                Doctrine of separation of powers—judicial review—
                    scope and limitations.............................................................................................. 56
       2     Preamble                                                                                                                  ...... 58
                Introductory.............................................................................................................. 58
                Background history................................................................................................... 58
                Content and significance of the Preamble................................................................... 60
                Preamble.................................................................................................................... 61
       3     We the People of India                                                                                              ...... 63
                Background history................................................................................................... 63
                Interpretation............................................................................................................. 64
       4     Socialist Republic       ............................................................................................. ...... 67
                Introduction............................................................................................................... 67
                Background history................................................................................................... 67
                Socialist—emergence of concept................................................................................ 72
                Maxim “Reddendo singula singulis”.......................................................................... 72
                Social Justice—concept under Indian Constitution..................................................... 72
                Social democracy—interpretation.............................................................................. 73
                Importance of social justice....................................................................................... 73
                Sovereignty................................................................................................................ 74
                Democracy................................................................................................................ 75
                Liberty, equality and fraternity.................................................................................. 75
       5     Secular State                                                                                                            ...... 77
                “Secular”................................................................................................................... 77
                Background history................................................................................................... 77
                Interpretation............................................................................................................. 78
                Secularism—meaning................................................................................................ 79
                Sovereign power—sovereign power not same as police power.................................. 81
       6     Naming the Republic       ........................................................................................ ...... 83
                Introduction............................................................................................................... 83
                Background history................................................................................................... 83
       7     Union of States       ................................................................................................. ...... 85
                Introduction............................................................................................................... 85
                Background history................................................................................................... 85
                Interpretation............................................................................................................. 86
                Acquisition of territories—effect on the rights accrued under old laws...................... 88
                Boundaries of State.................................................................................................... 89
                Acquisition of territory.............................................................................................. 89
                Adjustment of territories............................................................................................ 89
                Perpetual use of Teen Bigha....................................................................................... 90
       8     Formation of States         ........................................................................................ ...... 91
                Introduction............................................................................................................... 91
                Background history................................................................................................... 91
                Constitutional amendment......................................................................................... 92
                Interpretation—scope and application........................................................................ 93
                Republic of India—State succession takes place either in law or in fact..................... 94
       9     Citizenship     ......................................................................................................... ...... 95
                Introduction............................................................................................................... 95
                Background history................................................................................................... 95
                Interpretation—citizenship—meaning........................................................................ 97
                Citizenship by birth................................................................................................... 98
                Citizenship by descent............................................................................................... 98
                Citizenship by domicile............................................................................................. 98
                Domicile.................................................................................................................... 99
                Domicile at the commencement of the Constitution................................................... 99
                Single citizenship under the Constitution—domicile criterion.................................. 100
                Acquisition of citizenship—Parliament’s power to enact laws................................. 100
                Grant of certificate of citizenship............................................................................. 101
       9     Citizenship—continued
                No citizenship for long stay in India........................................................................ 101
                Loss of Indian citizenship....................................................................................... 101
                Citizenship—determination...................................................................................... 101
                Jurisdiction regarding determination of citizenship.................................................. 101
                Ordinarily resident................................................................................................... 102
     10     Migration to India from Pakistan            .................................................................. .... 103
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 103
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 103
                Object of clause 5A................................................................................................. 103
                ‘Migrated’—meaning of........................................................................................... 103
                Chakma migrated from Bangladesh.......................................................................... 103
     11     Right of Migrants to Pakistan                                                                                    .... 104
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 104
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 104
                Migration to Pakistan............................................................................................... 104
     12     Fundamental Rights        ........................................................................................ .... 105
                Fundamental rights.................................................................................................. 105
                Fundamental rights and Directive Principles of State Policy..................................... 105
                Doctrine of waiver................................................................................................... 106
     13     State    ................................................................................................................... .... 107
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 107
                Background history................................................................................................. 107
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 108
                Concepts of ‘State’ and ‘other Authorities’.............................................................. 113
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 113
                Some illustrative cases............................................................................................. 117
     14     Law Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights               ................................................ .... 119
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 119
                Meanings of terms................................................................................................... 119
     15     Equality before Law        ........................................................................................ .... 123
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 123
     16     Equality of Opportunity in Public Employment               .......................................... .... 130
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 130
                Background history................................................................................................. 130
                Interpretation—scope and ambit of the term............................................................ 130
                Excessive reservations—carry-forward rule—effect on Art. 16(1).......................... 132
                Cases where the guarantee contained in Art. 16(1) held not violated........................ 134
                Office under the State.............................................................................................. 136
                “Equal pay for equal work”—if covered by the expression “equal
                    opportunity in employment”................................................................................ 136
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 137
                Equal treatment to pensioners in the matter of pensionary benefits......................... 138
                Equal pay for equal work........................................................................................ 139
                Meanings of words.................................................................................................. 140
     17     Employment or Appointment                                                                                     .... 141
                Employment or appointment................................................................................... 141
                Background history................................................................................................. 141
                Interpretation—meaning of the term in the context of Art. 16(1)............................. 141
                Different facets of appointment or employment under the State............................... 144
                Appointment on ad hoc basis.................................................................................. 144
                “Ad-hoc”, “stop-gap” and “fortuitous”appointment................................................. 145
                Appointment—provisional or temporary................................................................. 145
                Appointment on “regular basis”............................................................................... 145
                Appointments against permanent posts.................................................................... 146
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 147
     18     Discrimination in Respect of Employment                                                                  .... 149
                Discriminated against in respect of any employment
                    of office under the State....................................................................................... 149
                Background history................................................................................................. 149
                Interpretation—meaning of the expression “discriminated against”......................... 150
                Discrimination on the ground of ‘caste’................................................................... 150
                Discrimination on the ground of ‘place of birth’...................................................... 151
                Discrimination on the ground of ‘descent’............................................................... 151
                Discrimination in promotion on the ground
                    of caste and community....................................................................................... 151
                Discrimination on the ground of residence.............................................................. 152
                Discrimination on the ground of sex........................................................................ 152
                Selection to high office of Principal of a Degree College
                    on the basis of  higher academic qualifications and
                    excellence not discriminatory............................................................................... 153
                Reinstatement of dismissed employees for participating
                    in agitation/strike, leaving the rest—action of the
                    authority discriminatory....................................................................................... 153
                Differentiation not always discriminatory and not violative of Art. 14 .................... 154
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 154
     19     Backward Class and Reservation of Appointments or Posts                                         .... 155
                Backward class........................................................................................................ 155
                Background history................................................................................................. 155
                Interpretation—meaning of the words ‘backward classes’....................................... 156
                Poverty or place of birth or residence not the
                    only factors of backwardness............................................................................... 157
                Identification of “socially and educationally backward classes”.............................. 158
                Criteria for determination of backwardness—Supreme Court’s view....................... 159
                Creamy layer........................................................................................................... 160
                Reservation.............................................................................................................. 161
                Reservation for Scheduled Caste candidates—whether barred by over-
                    representation in service....................................................................................... 162
                Reservation quota.................................................................................................... 162
                Reduction in percentage of reservation of
                    Schedule Castes/tribes etc.—validity.................................................................... 162
                Classification of Backward classes for conferment of benefits................................ 163
                Concluding remarks................................................................................................. 163
                Right to be considered for promotion...................................................................... 164
     20     Abolition of Untouchability          ............................................................................ .... 166
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 166
                Equality to Dalits..................................................................................................... 166
     21     National Awards and Abolition of Titles              ..................................................... .... 167
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 167
                National Awards...................................................................................................... 167
     22     Freedom of Speech and Expression                                                                            .... 168
                Freedom of speech and expression.......................................................................... 168
                Background history................................................................................................. 168
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 169
                Bandh...................................................................................................................... 170
                Information about candidate in election................................................................... 171
                Freedom of speech and expression.......................................................................... 171
                Freedom of press..................................................................................................... 171
                Right to travel outside India..................................................................................... 173
                Executive interference affecting freedom of the press—effects................................ 173
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 174
                Violation of right to freedom of speech, etc.—extent of the burden
                    of proof of the petitioner—State’s onus to justify action, etc................................ 175
                Restrictions on ‘pop song’ or ‘disco dance’ on the plea
                    of decadent culture—whether justified under Art. 19(2)
                    of the Constitution................................................................................................ 175
                U.S. Constitutional provisions and American decisions
                    on the freedom of speech and press considered................................................... 176
                Freedom of speech and of press during “emergency”.............................................. 178
     23     Associations and Unions          ................................................................................. .... 180
                Right to form associations or unions....................................................................... 180
                Background history................................................................................................. 180
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the words..................................................... 180
                Recognition of union—claim to representation—
                    if a concomitant right............................................................................................ 182
                Union’s right to safeguard the interests of its members—
                    publication of a speech of the union’s President criticising
                    the employer alleged to be defamatory—claim of privilege................................... 183
                Bar to the formation by unions by members of Defence Service and
                    police service—if violates Art. 19(1)(c) of the Constitution................................. 184
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 184
     24     Trade or Business      ............................................................................................. .... 186
                Trade or business.................................................................................................... 186
                Background history................................................................................................. 186
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the term as used in
                    Art. 19(1)(g) and Art. 301 of the Constitution...................................................... 186
     25     Contempt of Court                                                                                                    .... 189
                “Contempt of Court”................................................................................................ 189
                Background history................................................................................................. 189
                Interpretation—contempt of court—meaning........................................................... 190
                Contempt of Court—guiding principles.................................................................... 191
     26     Reasonable Restrictions          .................................................................................. .... 194
                Reasonable restrictions on the exercise of right....................................................... 194
                Background history................................................................................................. 194
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 194
                Restriction vis-a-vis suspension of rights................................................................ 199
                Substantive and procedural aspects of reasonableness............................................ 199
                ‘Restriction’—whether should include total prohibition........................................... 200
                Guidelines to determine reasonableness of restrictions—Court’s duty.................... 201
                Test of reasonableness of restriction....................................................................... 201
     27     Public Order                                                                                                            .... 203
                Public order............................................................................................................. 203
                Background history................................................................................................. 203
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 203
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 204
                Exercise of freedom not absolute............................................................................ 205
                ‘Public order’ and ‘law & order’ distinguished................................................... ... 205
                American Constitutional law compared.................................................................... 205
                Security of State and Public Order differentiated...................................................... 206
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 207
     28     Law in Force                                                                                                            .... 209
                Law in force at the time of commission of the offence............................................ 209
                Background history................................................................................................. 209
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 209
                ‘Law in force’—meaning and application................................................................ 209
                Ex post facto law—application to a prior conviction................................................ 211
                Effect of repeal and ex post facto law...................................................................... 212
                Provision in the U.S. Constitution............................................................................ 212
                Concluding remarks................................................................................................. 213
     29     Imposition of Greater Penalty            ....................................................................... .... 214
                Penalty greater than what could be inflicted for the offence,
                    etc. at the time of the commission of the offence.................................................. 214
                Background history................................................................................................. 214
                “Law in force”......................................................................................................... 215
                American Law......................................................................................................... 215
     30     Double Jeopardy                                                                                                       .... 217
                Prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once............................... 217
                Background history................................................................................................. 217
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 218
                Rule of Autrefois acquit........................................................................................... 220
                Applicability of the principle in departmental proceedings....................................... 220
                Double jeopardy if involved in the second enquiry on the same charge................... 221
                Supreme Court’s jurisdiction to impose punishment 
                    instead of directing the holding of a second enquiry............................................. 221
                Foreign decision compared...................................................................................... 222
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 223
     31     Protection against Self-incrimination               .......................................................... .... 225
                Compelled to be a witness against himself............................................................... 225
                Background history................................................................................................. 225
     31     Protection against Self-incrimination—continued
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 225
                Requirements of protection against self-incrimination............................................. 226
                Searches and seizures.............................................................................................. 229
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 231
     32     Personal liberty      ................................................................................................. .... 232
                Personal Liberty...................................................................................................... 232
                Background history................................................................................................. 232
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 232
                Comparison with the provision in the U.S. Constitution.......................................... 233
                Change in the judicial attitude in India since Gopalan’s case.................................... 234
                Foreign decisions considered................................................................................... 237
                Applicability of the provisions of Art. 20(2) to
                    under-trial prisoners behind the prison bars......................................................... 238
                Prolonged detention in jail after acquittal—whether hits Art. 21............................... 238
                Prolonged incarceration of a prisoner under sentence of death
                    whether enough to attract the constitutional protection of Art. 21......................... 239
                Scope of the word ‘life’ in Art. 21—whether includes ‘livelihood’.......................... 240
                Right to gender equality and right to life and liberty............................................. ... 241
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 242
                Right to life.............................................................................................................. 242
                Precautionary principle............................................................................................ 243
                Doctrine of parens patriae........................................................................................ 243
     33     Procedure Established by Law–Due Process of Law                ................................... .... 245
                Procedure established by law................................................................................... 245
                Background history................................................................................................. 245
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 246
                ‘Due process of law ‘in the American Constitution vis-a-vis’
                    procedure established by law’ in the Indian Constitution..................................... 248
                Concluding remarks................................................................................................. 250
                Ordinance as law..................................................................................................... 251
                Human dignity—not to be ignored........................................................................... 251
     34     Preventive Detention           ...................................................................................... .... 252
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 252
                Preventive detention during British rule and its after effect...................................... 253
                Preventive detention—meaning, scope and application............................................ 256
                Arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention................... 258
                Background history................................................................................................. 259
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 261
                Interpretation “arrest and detention”—meaning of................................................... 261
                Preventive and Punitive detention—meaning of....................................................... 261
                Court’s function in interpreting Preventive Laws..................................................... 262
                ‘Arrest and custody’—not synonymous terms........................................................ 262
                Earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order............................ 263
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 264
                “Earliest opportunity”—meaning of......................................................................... 264
                Delay in the disposal of detenu’s representation—effect......................................... 264
                Representation not to be interpreted too technically................................................. 265
     34     Preventive Detention—continued
                Compliance with procedural safeguards in Art. 22(5)—courts duty
                     not to sit in appeal on the orders of preventive detention.................................... 267
                Preventive detention of a person already in jail........................................................ 267
                Relevancy of grounds for detention......................................................................... 269
                Parliament may by law prescribe the maximum period for which any
                    person in any class or classes of cases may be detained...................................... 269
                Interpretation—maximum period of detention......................................................... 269
     35     Arrest and Detention         ....................................................................................... .... 271
                No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without
                    being informed, as soon as may be of the grounds of his arrest........................... 271
                Background history................................................................................................. 271
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 272
                “Satisfaction” of detaining authority........................................................................ 273
                Detention, punitive or preventive not to debar
                    a detenu from seeking relief................................................................................. 273
                Simultaneous proceedings against a person............................................................. 273
     36     Right to Consult and to be Defended by a Legal Practitioner                                        .... 275
                Right to consult, etc. a legal practitioner of his choice.............................................. 275
                Background history................................................................................................. 275
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 275
                Legal assistance at State expense............................................................................. 276
     37     Begar and Forced Labour                                                                                          .... 280
                “Begar and other forms of forced labour are prohibited.”........................................ 280
                Background history................................................................................................. 280
                Interpretation—meaning of the words ‘begar’ and ‘forced labour’.......................... 281
                Prohibition of forced labour.................................................................................... 281
                Compulsory service for public purpose—scope and meaning................................. 282
                Rigorous imprisonment........................................................................................... 285
                Prisoners entitled to equitable wages........................................................................ 285
                International concept—comparison with
                    Art. 23 of our Constitution................................................................................... 285
     38     Prohibition of Employment of Children              ...................................................... .... 286
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 286
                Corresponding Clause in the draft Constitution........................................................ 286
                Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989............................................................ 286
                Scheme for prohibition of child labour.................................................................... 286
     39     Freedom of Conscience                                                                                              .... 287
                “All persons equally entitled to freedom of conscience 
                    and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion”............................ 287
                Background history................................................................................................. 287
                Comparison with the provision in the American Constitution.................................. 287
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 288
                Religion................................................................................................................... 292
                Protection of place of worship................................................................................. 292
                Religious freedom.................................................................................................... 292
                Religious belief or practice....................................................................................... 293
     39     Freedom of Conscience—continued
                Rights of a religious community based on customs—
                    whether protected by Art. 25................................................................................ 293
                Religious conversion............................................................................................... 293
                “Right to manage its own affairs”—meaning of........................................................ 293
                Right to administer property [Art. 26(d)]................................................................. 294
     40     Rights of Religious Denominations                                                                             .... 296
                “Right to manage its own affairs in matters of religion—
                    and administer property, movable or immovable owned
                    by it in accordance with law”................................................................................ 296
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 296
                Interpretation—denomination—meaning of............................................................. 297
                Religious denomination........................................................................................... 297
                Religious denomination and denominational rights.................................................. 297
                Acts in furtherance of religion................................................................................. 299
                Conflict between Arts. 25(2)(b) and 26(b)—mode of construction.......................... 299
     41     Prohibition of Religion at State-Managed Educational Institutions                        ...... .... 301
                “No religious instructions to be provided in any
                     educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds”............................. 301
                Background history................................................................................................. 301
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 302
                Study of religious philosophy.................................................................................. 303
                American decisions................................................................................................. 304
     42     Minority Rights–Cultural and Educational                                                                 .... 305
                “Right to conserve language script or culture of its own”......................................... 305
                Introductory notes................................................................................................... 305
                Interpretation—‘Minority’—meaning of.................................................................. 305
                Scope and object...................................................................................................... 306
                Right of minorities to educational institution............................................................ 307
                Non-holding of entrance examination in a particular language................................. 307
                Articles 29 and 30................................................................................................... 307
                “Right to establish and administer educational
                    institutions of their choice”.................................................................................. 308
                Interpretation—“establish and administer”—meaning of......................................... 308
                No deprivation of minority character of educational institution............................... 313
                Right to establish minority institution subject to regulatory provisions ................... 314
                Ramakrishna religion—whether minority religion.................................................... 314
                Minority status changed into non-minority status.................................................... 314
                Establish and administer educational institution...................................................... 314
                “Of their choice”—meaning of................................................................................. 314
                “Establish” and “administer”................................................................................... 315
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 315
     43     Saving of Laws      ................................................................................................. .... 317
                Saving of laws giving effect to Directive Principles.................................................. 317
                Background history................................................................................................. 317
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 318
                Scope and ambit of the provision in Art. 31-C—Its impact on
                    Fundamental Rights.............................................................................................. 320
     43     Saving of Laws—continued
                Constitutional validity of Art. 31-C.......................................................................... 322
                Doctrine of ‘nexus’—applicability to laws
                    under protection of Art. 31C................................................................................ 323
                No retrospective operation of Art. 31-C................................................................... 324
     44     Appropriate Proceedings                                                                                            .... 325
                Appropriate proceedings.......................................................................................... 325
                Background history................................................................................................. 325
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 325
                Public interest litigation—meaning and scope.......................................................... 326
                American practice compared.................................................................................... 327
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 327
     45     Enforcement of Fundamental Rights–Supreme Court’s Power                                      .... 328
                The Supreme Court shall have to issue directions, orders or writs, etc.................... 328
                Background history................................................................................................. 328
                Interpretation—scope and ambit of Art. 32.............................................................. 329
                Policy matter............................................................................................................ 333
                Correction of decision on merit............................................................................... 333
                Procedure to be followed by the Supreme Court in enforcing
                    Fundamental Rights.............................................................................................. 333
                Applicability of res judicata to a petition under Art. 32........................................... 336
                Suspension of constitutional remedy
                    under Art. 32 during “emergency”........................................................................ 338
     46     Martial Law     ....................................................................................................... .... 339
                Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the
                    Union or of a State or any other person......in connection with the
                    maintenance or restoration of order in any area.................................................... 339
                Background history................................................................................................. 339
                Interpretation—Martial law—what is....................................................................... 340
                Effect of martial law................................................................................................ 341
                Martial law and emergency...................................................................................... 342
                Martial law and military law..................................................................................... 343
     47     Material Resources of the Community—Distribution                                                    .... 344
                The ownership and control of the material
                    resources of the community etc............................................................................ 344
                Background history................................................................................................. 344
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 345
                Material resources of the community—meaning of.................................................. 345
                ‘Distribution’ of resources—whether covers nationalisation................................... 347
     48     Free Legal Aid      ................................................................................................... .... 350
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 350
                Mandate on State..................................................................................................... 350
                Duty of counsel....................................................................................................... 350
     49     Village Panchayat        ............................................................................................ .... 351
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 351
                Corresponding clause of the Draft Constitution....................................................... 351
                Guidelines for organising Village Panchayat............................................................ 351
     50     Right to Education                                                                                                   .... 352
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 352
                Corresponding clause of the Draft Constitution....................................................... 352
                Right of Education................................................................................................... 352
     51     Living Wages                                                                                                           .... 353
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 353
                Corresponding clause of the Draft Constitution....................................................... 353
                Fair wages and living wages—meaning of................................................................ 353
     52     Uniform Civil Code                                                                                                  .... 354
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 354
                Corresponding clause of the Draft Constitution....................................................... 354
                Uniform civil code................................................................................................... 354
     53     Weaker Sections of the People            ....................................................................... .... 355
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 355
                Corresponding clause of the Draft Constitution....................................................... 355
                “Weaker sections”— meaning of............................................................................. 355
     54     Executive Power                                                                                                        .... 356
                Executive power of the Union................................................................................. 356
                Background history................................................................................................. 356
                Executive power—meaning of................................................................................. 358
                Executive power—extent of..................................................................................... 359
                Executive power—nature and mode of exercise of.................................................. 359
                Executive power—scope of its exercise................................................................... 360
                Framing of Service Rules in exercise of executive power under Art. 73................... 360
                Extension of executive power of Government to the carrying of
                    trade or business, etc............................................................................................ 361
     55     President’s Power       ............................................................................................. .... 362
                “Sentence for any offence against any law relating to a matter 
                    to which the executive power of the Union extends”............................................ 362
                Background history................................................................................................. 362
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 363
                Effect of pardon...................................................................................................... 364
                English and American law compared....................................................................... 364
                Courts if can interfere.............................................................................................. 364
     56     Aid and Advice by Council of Ministers                                                                     .... 367
                “Council of Ministers...to aid and advise the President....”...................................... 367
                Background history................................................................................................. 367
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 368
                Interpretation—functional relations between the President and
                    the Council of Ministers—Supreme Court’s rulings............................................. 368
                Comments............................................................................................................... 370
                President if bound by the advice of the minority Government—
                    Question of legality and propriety........................................................................ 372
                British conventions in case of ministerial crisis....................................................... 372
     57     Rules of Business                                                                                                      .... 374
                “Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of
                    the President to be authenticated in such a manner as may
                    be specified in rules to be made by the President”................................................ 374
     57     Rules of Business—continued
                Background history................................................................................................. 374
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 375
                Allocation of business............................................................................................. 377
     58     Qualification for Membership of Parliament                                                               .... 378
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 378
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 378
                “Office”—meaning of.............................................................................................. 378
     59     Liability of Member of Parliament            ................................................................ .... 379
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 379
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 379
                “In respect of”—meaning of.................................................................................... 379
     60     Parliamentary Privileges          ................................................................................. .... 380
                “Powers, privileges and immunities of each House of
                    Parliament and of members... until defined by Parliament,
                    shall be those of the House of Commons of the
                    Parliament of the United Kingdom...”................................................................... 380
                Background history................................................................................................. 380
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 381
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 381
                Contempt in General................................................................................................ 387
     61     Ordinance                                                                                                               .... 392
                Power to make ordinance......................................................................................... 392
                Background history................................................................................................. 392
                Interpretation—Ordinance when to be promulgated................................................. 393
                Is Ordinance a law................................................................................................... 394
                Justiciability............................................................................................................. 395
                Justification of the ordinance—making power......................................................... 395
     62     Judge of Supreme Court          ................................................................................. .... 397
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 397
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 397
                Consultation with the Chief Justice of India............................................................. 397
                Formation of opinion of the Chief Justice for appointment of
                     Supreme Court Judge........................................................................................... 397
                Misbehaviour—meaning of..................................................................................... 398
                Removal of Supreme Court Judge............................................................................ 398
                Restraining Judge concerned for removal from functioning judicially...................... 398
     63     Dispute between Union and State/States                 .................................................... .... 399
                “The Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other 
                    court, have jurisdiction in any dispute between the 
                    Government of India and one or more States, etc.”.............................................. 399
                Background history................................................................................................. 400
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 400
     64     Exclusion of Appeal against Court Martial’s Decisions
              from Supreme Court’s Jurisdictions                                                                           .... 403
                Special leave to appeal by Supreme Court—applicability to Court 
                    Martial’s decisions covering matters relating to armed forces............................... 403
     64     Exclusion of Appeal against Court Martial’s
              Decisions from Supreme Court’s Jurisdictions—continued
                Background history................................................................................................. 403
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 405
                Court martial—what is............................................................................................. 406
                Challenge before the Supreme Court against court-martial and
                    Supreme Court’s jurisdiction................................................................................ 406
                “Any Court or tribunal”........................................................................................... 408
     65     Review of its Own Judgments by the Supreme Court                                                   .... 410
                “The Supreme Court shall have power to review its own judgments”...................... 410
                Background history................................................................................................. 410
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 410
                “Mistake apparent on face of record”—meaning of................................................. 412
                Any other sufficient reason—meaning of................................................................ 412
                Review—meaning of................................................................................................ 412
     66     Transfer of Cases       ............................................................................................. .... 413
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 413
                Transfer of case....................................................................................................... 413
     67     Bindingness of Supreme Court’s Decisions                                                                 .... 415
                “Law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts....”................... 415
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 415
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 415
                Duty of the High Court to follow the opinions of the 
                    bigger Benches of the Supreme Court................................................................... 418
                Decision per incuriam.............................................................................................. 420
                Conflicting decisions of the Supreme Court............................................................. 420
                Distinction between obiter dictum and ratio decidendi............................................. 421
                English practice compared....................................................................................... 421
                Two decisions in conflict with each other—which of them
                    would be binding.................................................................................................. 422
                Finality of Supreme Court judgment........................................................................ 422
     68     Doing Complete Justice          .................................................................................. .... 423
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 423
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 423
                “Doing complete justice”......................................................................................... 423
                “Territory of India” meaning of............................................................................... 424
                Doctrine of prospective overruling.......................................................................... 424
     69     Advisory Jurisdiction of Supreme Court             ...................................................... .... 425
                “President may refer a question/dispute to
                    Supreme Court for opinion.”................................................................................ 425
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 425
                Interpretation—scope and application...................................................................... 426
                Bindingness of advisory opinion............................................................................. 427
                Supreme Court declining answer to reference.......................................................... 428
     70     Term of Office of Governor          ............................................................................ .... 429
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 429
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 429
                Governor to hold office till his successor enters upon office................................... 429
     71     Power of Pardon and Remission of Sentence by Governor                                            .... 430
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 430
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 430
                Power of pardon by Governor................................................................................. 430
                Remission of sentence............................................................................................. 430
     72     Executive Power of Governor                                                                                     .... 431
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 431
                Corresponding clauses in the Draft Constitution...................................................... 431
                Executive power through permanent bureaucracy.................................................... 431
                Absence of words ‘from amongst members of the legislature’—impact.................. 432
     73     Graduate Constituency and its Candidate                                                                   .... 433
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 433
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 433
                Candidate for graduate constituency........................................................................ 433
                Electorate—meaning of............................................................................................ 433
     74     Duration of Assembly         ...................................................................................... .... 434
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 434
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 434
                Prorogation of Assembly......................................................................................... 434
     75     Disqualification of Membership                                                                                 .... 435
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 435
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 435
                “Undischarged insolvent”—meaning of................................................................... 435
                Office of profit—meaning of................................................................................... 436
     76     Assent to Bills       ................................................................................................... .... 437
                “.......Either the Governor assents to the Bill or withholds assent
                    therefrom or reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President”................... 437
                Background history................................................................................................. 437
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 438
     77     High Court as Court of Record          ....................................................................... .... 439
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 439
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 439
                Court of record........................................................................................................ 439
                Contempt of Court................................................................................................... 439
     78     High Court Judges (Appointment)            ................................................................ .... 441
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 441
                Background history................................................................................................. 441
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 442
                Executive power of the President in making appointment of a
                    High Court Judge—meaning and scope................................................................. 443
                Selection of suitable persons—no distinction to be
                    made between a lawyer practising in High Court
                    and a lawyer practising in District Court............................................................... 443
                “Judicial Office”—interpretation of.......................................................................... 445
     79     High Court Judges (Transfer)        .......................................................................... .... 446
                Introduction........................................................................................................ ... 446
                Background history................................................................................................. 446
     79     High Court Judges (Transfer)—continued
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 448
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 448
                Power to transfer..................................................................................................... 449
                Appointment and transfer—meaning in the
                    context of Art. 217, proviso (c)............................................................................ 449
                Case to appoint successor Chief Justice of High Court............................................. 450
     80     High Court Judges (Retirement Benefits)              ..................................................... .... 451
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 451
                Background history................................................................................................. 451
                Encashment of leave salary on retirement—limit..................................................... 452
                Mode of calculating service of a retiring High Court Judge for the
                    purposes of his pension....................................................................................... 453
     81     Additional Judges—High Court                                                                                .... 454
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 454
                Background history................................................................................................. 454
                Nature and conditions of appointment—interpretation............................................. 455
                Mode of appointment and status of additional or acting Judges............................... 456
                Independence of judiciary affected by constant resort to Art. 224(1)...................... 457
                “A temporary increase in the business or arrears of work in the
                    High Court”—meaning of..................................................................................... 458
     82     Writs  .................................................................................................................... .... 460
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 460
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 460
                Meaning of expression............................................................................................ 460
                Public Interest litigation under Art. 226................................................................... 462
     83     District Judges (Appointment)            ....................................................................... .... 463
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 463
                Background history................................................................................................. 463
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 465
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 465
                Appointment—meaning of....................................................................................... 465
                Recruitment of judicial officers................................................................................ 467
                Appointment in violation of Art. 233 subsequently declared
                    invalid—effect on judgments delivered prior to such declaration—
                    applicability to de facto doctrine........................................................................... 468
                Appointment of judges for the fast track courts....................................................... 469
     84     District Judges (Promotion/Confirmation)                                                                   .... 471
                Promotion and confirmation—scope and meaning................................................... 471
                District Judge—interpretation of.............................................................................. 473
     85     District Judges (Postings/Transfer)            ................................................................ .... 474
                Posting/Transfer—scope and meaning..................................................................... 474
     86     Subordinate Judiciary        ...................................................................................... .... 476
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 476
                Background history................................................................................................. 476
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 477
                Validity of the rules framed by the Governor—tests................................................ 477
                Consultation with the “High Court”—scope and meaning........................................ 478
     87     Control of Subordinate Judiciary            .................................................................. .... 480
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 480
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 480
                Background history................................................................................................. 480
                Control—meaning and interpretation....................................................................... 481
                High Court’s power of control—limit...................................................................... 483
                Scope and nature of control over subordinate courts in the matter
                    of promotion/disciplinary matters, etc.................................................................. 483
                View of the Chief Justice of High Court to appreciate merits and
                    demerits of subordinate judge.............................................................................. 484
                Scheme of Arts. 233 and 235—powers of
                    Governor vis-a-vis High Court............................................................................. 485
                Judicial Officer—ethics............................................................................................ 486
     88     Powers of Legislation—Union vis-a-vis States                                                             .... 487
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 487
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 487
                Interpretation—extent of legislative power............................................................... 488
                Centre-State relation in legislative field.................................................................... 489
                Some general principles relating to legislative powers.............................................. 490
     89     Residuary Powers of Legislation                                                                                .... 491
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 491
                Introductory note..................................................................................................... 491
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 491
     90     Repugnancy of Laws       ........................................................................................ .... 493
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 493
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 493
                Conditional legislation and delegated legislation—distinguished.............................. 493
                Principles embodied in Art. 254.............................................................................. 493
     91     Taxation—General Principles                                                                                    .... 495
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 495
                Background history................................................................................................. 495
                Interpretation—meaning of the words “authority of law”......................................... 495
                Constitutional limitations on taxing authorities........................................................ 496
                Enhancement of taxation—power of Legislature...................................................... 497
                Tax and fee distinguished........................................................................................ 497
                Method of recovery of taxes adopted by a State—
                    whether can be challenged.................................................................................... 498
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 499
                Levy of tax when held to be invalid......................................................................... 501
                Validity of tax laws—tests....................................................................................... 501
                Words “levy” and “collect’—not synonymous........................................................ 502
                Nature of tax............................................................................................................ 502
     92     Tax on Sale and Purchase of Newspapers, etc.                ........................................... .... 503
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 503
                Background history................................................................................................. 503
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 504
     93     Taxes—Distribution between Union and States                  ........................................ .... 506
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 506
                Background history................................................................................................. 506
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 507
                Basis of distribution of income-tax—Expert Committee’s Report............................ 507
     94     Grants to Certain States           ................................................................................. .... 509
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 509
                Background history................................................................................................. 509
                Interpretation—grants-in-aid—meaning and application.......................................... 510
     95     Tax on Professions, Trades and Callings, etc.             ............................................... .... 512
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 512
                Background history................................................................................................. 512
                Interpretation—professions, trades, callings or
                    employments—meaning....................................................................................... 513
                Validity of the law on profession tax, etc................................................................. 514
     96     Union Property–Exemption from State Taxation                ........................................ .... 515
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 515
                Background history................................................................................................. 515
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 516
                Property of the Union—scope and meaning............................................................. 517
     97     Imposition of Tax—Restrictions                                                                                .... 518
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 518
                Background history................................................................................................. 518
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 519
                Interpretation—restrictions on State power to impose tax on
                    sale and purchase................................................................................................. 521
     98     State Property—Exemption from Union Taxation                                                        .... 525
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 525
                Background history................................................................................................. 525
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 526
                Union taxation—interpretation of............................................................................ 528
     99     Succession to Assets, Liabilities, etc.               ........................................................... .... 529
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 529
                Background history................................................................................................. 529
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 530
                Succession to land................................................................................................... 531
    100     Contract by Centre or State           ............................................................................ .... 533
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 533
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 533
                Judicial review of contractual power of Governmental bodies................................. 533
                Contract with Government....................................................................................... 534
    101     Suits by and against the Government                                                                         .... 535
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 535
                Background history................................................................................................. 535
                Interpretation—scope and general principles........................................................... 537
    101     Suits by and against the Government—continued
                Sovereign activities of the State—immunity from being sued—
                    when can be claimed............................................................................................ 537
                “Sovereign immunity” and “act of State” as defence................................................ 539
    102     Right to Property        ............................................................................................. .... 540
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 540
                Background history................................................................................................. 540
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 541
                Interpretation—authority of law—meaning.............................................................. 542
                Deprivation of property—meaning.......................................................................... 543
                Acquisition of property—right to compensation...................................................... 545
                Jurists’ views on the omission of property right from the
                    Fundamental Rights Chapter—effect on the right to property of an
                    individual—Prof. P.K. Tripathi in his Article “Right of Property
                    after Forty-fourth Amendment—better protected than Ever Before”..................... 546
                    Public purpose—scope of.................................................................................... 548
                “Acquisition”—meaning of...................................................................................... 548
    103     Commerce and Intercourse           ............................................................................. .... 549
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 549
                Background history................................................................................................. 549
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 549
                “Business”—“trade and commerce” interpretation of.............................................. 551
    104     Freedom of Trade and Commerce            .................................................................. .... 552
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 552
                Background history................................................................................................. 552
                Interpretation—meaning of the expression.............................................................. 553
                American and Australian decisions compared......................................................... 558
                Concluding Remarks................................................................................................ 561
    105     Rules Regulating Recruitment and Condition of Service                    ......................... .... 563
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 563
                Background history................................................................................................. 563
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 564
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 564
                Statutory force of the Service Rules......................................................................... 564
                Enforceability.......................................................................................................... 565
                Rule-making powers—distinction between rules framed under
                    Art. 148(5) and proviso to Art 309 of the Constitution........................................ 566
                Constitutionality of rules/regulations—tests............................................................. 566
    106     Affairs of the Union or of any State                                                                           .... 568
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 568
                Background history................................................................................................. 568
                Legislative changes.................................................................................................. 568
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 568
    107     Doctrine of Pleasure         ........................................................................................ .... 570
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 570
                Background history................................................................................................. 570
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of this expression in the context
                    of civil service in India—the Rule of English law compared................................. 570
    107     Doctrine of Pleasure—continued
                Limitations on the exercise of pleasure powers of
                    the President or Governor.................................................................................... 573
                Pleasure-power if to be exercised in conformity with service rules
                    framed by the President/Governor........................................................................ 575
                Exceptions to the procedural limitations imposed by Art. 311(2)............................ 576
                Contractual appointment if fetters the exercise of pleasure power............................ 577
                Abolition of posts under the pleasure of the Government—
                    if attracts Art. 311(2)............................................................................................ 577
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 578
    108     Subordinate Authority                                                                                              .... 580
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 580
                Background history................................................................................................. 580
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 580
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 584
                Principle of double jeopardy not applicable............................................................. 584
                Misconduct.............................................................................................................. 584
                Government servant................................................................................................ 584
    109     Reasonable Opportunity          ................................................................................. .... 585
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 585
                Background history................................................................................................. 585
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 585
                Meaning and interpretation...................................................................................... 586
                Requirement of reasonable opportunity in disciplinary enquiries............................ 586
                Transfer................................................................................................................... 590
                Concept of “motive” and “foundation” concerning probationer............................... 591
                Compulsory retirement enumeration........................................................................ 591
    110     Dismissal or Removal from Service                                                                             .... 592
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 592
                Background history................................................................................................. 592
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 593
                Words “dismiss”, “remove” or “reduce in rank” distinguished................................ 595
                Termination of service when amounts to dismissal................................................. 595
                Termination of service not amounting to removal or dismissal................................ 597
                Removal or  dismissal from service under proviso (b) to 
                    Art. 311(2) of the Constitution—dispensation of enquiry.................................... 597
                Concluding remarks................................................................................................. 598
                Mala fide................................................................................................................. 599
    111     Reduction in Rank      ............................................................................................ .... 600
                ‘Reduced in rank’.................................................................................................... 600
                Background history................................................................................................. 600
                Interpretation—meaning and scope of the expression.............................................. 600
                Penalty of reduction in rank—requirements to be satisfied...................................... 601
                Reversion when tantamounts to reduction in rank................................................... 602
                Summing up............................................................................................................ 604
    112     Dismissal etc. on Criminal Conviction             .......................................................... .... 606
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 606
                Background history................................................................................................. 606
    112     Dismissal etc. on Criminal Conviction—continued
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 607
                Conviction on a criminal charge not to mean automatic dismissal............................ 608
                Conviction of Government servant and reappointment on acquittal......................... 609
    113     Security of State                                                                                                        .... 610
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 610
                Background history................................................................................................. 610
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 610
                Essential requirements of the proviso...................................................................... 611
                Question of review of the President’s Order/Governor’s
                    Order under proviso to Art. 311(2) ..................................................................... 612
    114     Public Service Commission          ............................................................................. .... 614
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 614
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 614
                Credibility of Public Service Commission................................................................ 614
                Reference by President to the Supreme Court for enquiry and report....................... 614
    115     Ineligibility of the Chairman—U.P.S.C. for 
              Employment under Union/State Government                                                              .... 616
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 616
                Background history................................................................................................. 616
                Interpretation—scope of the provision.................................................................... 617
    116     Election   ............................................................................................................... .... 619
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 619
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 619
                USA......................................................................................................................... 619
                India........................................................................................................................ 620
    117     Public Service Commission—Requirements for Consultation                    ................... .... 623
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 623
                Background history................................................................................................. 623
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 624
                Exclusion of Consultation of P.S.C. in respect of 
                    judicial  appointment and promotions, etc............................................................ 626
    118     Tribunals                                                                                                                 .... 627
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 627
                Insertion by amendments........................................................................................ 627
                Jurisdiction of Tribunals.......................................................................................... 627
                Recruitment—meaning of........................................................................................ 628
    119     Election Commission         ....................................................................................... .... 629
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 629
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 629
                Rules of majority decision....................................................................................... 629
                Conduct of election.................................................................................................. 629
                Status of Chief Election Commission....................................................................... 629
    120     Claims of Scheduled Castes and Tribes to Services                  ................................... .... 630
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 630
                Background history................................................................................................. 630
    120     Claims of Scheduled Castes and Tribes to Services—continued
                Interpretation—Reservation consistently with the maintenance of
                    efficiency—meaning and scope............................................................................ 631
                Comments............................................................................................................... 633
    121     National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes                                .... 635
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 635
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 635
                Procedure of Inquiry Commission........................................................................... 635
    122     Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes              ...................................................... .... 636
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 636
                Corresponding clause in the Draft Constitution........................................................ 636
                Orders issued under Arts. 341, 342......................................................................... 636
                Procedure for issuance of social status certificate
                    as member of S.C. or S.T..................................................................................... 636
    123     Proclamation of Emergency           ............................................................................ .... 638
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 638
                Background history................................................................................................. 638
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 640
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 641
                Articles 352 and 356............................................................................................... 642
                Publication of resolution of emergency.................................................................... 642
    124     Emergency—Distribution of Revenue              .......................................................... .... 643
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 643
                Background history................................................................................................. 643
                Interpretation—Distribution of revenues during
                    Emergency—Federal policy.................................................................................. 644
                Financial control by the Union during Emergency................................................... 645
    125     President’s Rule in States                                                                                           .... 646
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 646
                Background history................................................................................................. 646
                Interpretation—scope and application of the provision............................................ 647
                President’s function under Art. 356 is constitutional function 
                    and is not justiciable in view of Art. 361 of the Constitution................................ 649
                President’s satisfaction under Art. 356—whether his
                    personal satisfaction............................................................................................. 649
                Power of the President to suspend the State Legislature 
                    to give effect to proclamation under Art. 356....................................................... 649
                Function of the State Governor during
                    Proclamation of President’s rule........................................................................... 650
                Effect of the order of Governor during President’s rule........................................... 650
    126     Emergency—Failure of Constitutional Machineries in the States                                   .... 651
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 651
                Background history................................................................................................. 651
                Interpretation—Failure of the constitutional machinery in a State—
                    How to determine................................................................................................. 653
                “Cannot be carried on”—interpretation of................................................................ 654
                Situations not amounting to failure of constitutional
                    machinery in State................................................................................................ 654
    127     Emergency Provisions         ...................................................................................... .... 656
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 656
                Background history................................................................................................. 656
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 657
    128     Emergency—Suspension of Enforcement of Fundamental Rights                                 .... 660
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 660
                Background history................................................................................................. 660
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 662
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 662
                Distinction between Arts. 358 and 359.................................................................... 663
    129     Emergency—Financial        ...................................................................................... .... 665
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 665
                Background history............................................................................................. ... 665
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 666
    130     Right of Suit against President and Governor                 ........................................... .... 668
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 668
                Background history................................................................................................. 668
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 669
    131     Privy Purse—Abolition                                                                                              .... 670
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 670
                Background history................................................................................................. 670
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 670
                Interpretation—privy purse..................................................................................... 671
    132     Amendment of Constitution           .......................................................................... .... 672
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 672
                Background history................................................................................................. 672
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 674
                Interpretation—principles and procedure................................................................. 676
                Scope of judicial review of constitutional amendment............................................. 678
                “Thereupon the Constitution shall stand amended”—interpretation of..................... 679
                Number of amendments in the USA Constitution
                    and the Indian Constitution.................................................................................. 679
    133     Adaptations and Modifications of Law                                                                       .... 680
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 680
                Background history................................................................................................. 680
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 681
                “Law in force”—meaning of.................................................................................... 682
    134     Oath or Affirmation        ........................................................................................ .... 683
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 683
                Background history................................................................................................. 683
                Interpretation—meaning and significance of oath in the
                    light of different provisions of the Constitution
                    in respect of different constitutional offices......................................................... 684
    135     Administration and Control of Scheduled and Tribal Areas                                         .... 686
                Background history................................................................................................. 686
                Constitutional changes............................................................................................. 687
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 687
    136     Education                                                                                                                .... 688
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 688
                Background history................................................................................................. 688
                Interpretation........................................................................................................... 689
    137     Disqualification for Defection­                                                                                    .... 693
                Introduction............................................................................................................. 693
                Amendment............................................................................................................. 693
                Decision on question of disqualification by speaker................................................ 693

H.K. Saharay

MA (Triple), MCom, LLB, PhD (London), Barrister

M.S. Saharay

BSc, (Hons), LLM, Advocate

Legal professionals and law students



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