Book detail

The Law of Geographical Indications
The Law of Geographical Indications
Rising above the horizon
Author: Vandana Singh
Edition: 1st
Year of publication: 2017
No. of pages: 558
ISBN: 9788171773176
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 850.00
You pay 765.00
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The technological developments are increasingly diluting the meaning of distance and places, but the significance of places continues to matter. It is in this context that the Law of Geographical Indications (GI) assumes importance. Geographical indication acknowledges the unique and special relevance of the places, their natural factors which affect the quality of a product and their ancient links and cultural factors which give a special know-how to the crafts or skills. Geographical indications fall in the domain of Intellectual Property Rights which generally are rights associated with a person, but geographical indications are collective rights assigned to all the producers of that unique territory.
This book maps out the resources, naturally unique to a place and the hereditary knowledge that has come to the modern world through the word of mouth. The principal contribution to this book enriches the understanding of geographical indication in simple words without legal jargon. It is a comprehensive study on the geographical indication laws, giving ample insights into the concept of geographical indications, laws and processes for protection of traditional knowledge and unique natural products, international treaties and registration of geographical indication in India.
Of late, geographical indications are becoming prominent in the international treaties as a tool to economic development and quite often serious debate arises over the protective right of users in different territories for the use of a product. There are case studies representing protection of geographical indication to Indian products which may reflect the concerns of other developing countries. In a nutshell, the present work provides a comprehensive and accurate law relating to geographical indications and its interpretations within the country and abroad.

Remedies & penalties for infringement
Protection of Indian products
Conflicts with trade marks
Contemporary issues in India & abroad
International regimes of geographical indications

Part One
International Laws on Geographical Indications
     1     Geographical Indications—An Overview                          
    1.1      Meaning of geographical indication                                         
    1.2      Geographical indication as an intellectual
               property right                                                                            
    1.3      Geographical indication and other
               intellectual property rights                                                     
    1.4      Geographical indications and trademarks                          
1.4.1      Difference between trademarks and
               geographical indications                                                         
1.4.2      Conflicts between trademarks and
               geographical indications                                                         
    1.5      Bonding of geographical indications
               with the local environment                                                    
    1.6      Geographical indication—a community right                      
     2     Definition of  Geographical Indications                           
    2.1      Use of geographic word                                                          
   2.2      ‘Indication of source’ and ‘appellation
               of origin’                                                                                     
   2.3      Definitions of geographical indication                                  
2.3.1      Analysis of the above definitions                                           
   2.4      Elements on which the definition of
               geographical indications is based                                          
     2     Definition of  Geographical Indications—continued
   2.5      Functions of geographical indications                                  
   2.6      Types of geographical indications                                         
     3     Protection of Geographical Indications                            
    3.1      Unfair competition                                                                   
   3.2      Passing off                                                                                  
   3.3      Trademark regimes for the protection of
               geographical indications                                                         
3.3.1      Trademark with geographical references                           
3.3.2      Collective marks, guarantee marks
               and certification marks                                                           
3.3.3      Difference between collective marks
               and certification marks                                                           
   3.4      Administrative schemes for protection                               
   3.5      Sui generis protection of geographical
   3.6      ‘Passive’ or non-registration protection                                        
   3.7      Protection through registration                                             
     4     International Regime of Geographical Indications   
    4.1      The Paris Convention for the Protection
               of Industrial Property 1883                                                    
4.1.1      Features of the Paris Convention in brief                            
4.1.2      Provision concerning geographical
               indications, (Appellation of Origin,
               Indication of Source and Unfair
4.1.3      Protection against misleading use of
               geographical indications under the
               Paris Convention                                                                      
4.1.4      Unfair competition under Paris
4.1.5      Distinction between geographical
               indications and trademarks under
               the Paris Convention                                                               
4.1.6      Protection of Collective Marks under
               Article 7bis                                                                                 
   4.2      The Madrid Agreement for the Repression
               of False or Deceptive Indications of
               Source on Goods 1891                                                            
     4     International Regime of Geographical Indications—continued
4.2.1      Amendment of Madrid Agreement                                     
4.2.2      Modes of protection of geographical
   4.3      The Stresa Cheese Convention of 1951                                
   4.4      The Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of
               Appellations of Origin and Their International
               Registration 1958                                                                      
4.4.1      Lisbon System for the International
               Registration of Appellations of Origin                                   
   4.5      The Madrid Agreement Concerning the
               International Registration of Marks of 1891
               and the Protocol Relating to that Agreement                     
4.5.1      Effects of the International Registration                                      
   4.6      Revision of the Multilateral System of
               Geographical Indication Protection after 1958                  
4.6.1      Unsuccessful WIPO Draft Treaty                                          
4.6.2      The unsuccessful WIPO Model Law on
               geographical indications                                                         
4.6.3      Revision of the Paris Convention                                          
4.6.4      The 1990 Committee of Experts on
               the International Protection of
               Geographical Indications                                                        
   4.7      Bilateral and plurilateral agreements                                   
   4.8      The North American Free Trade
               Agreement (NAFTA)                                                               
   4.9      Relationship between the WIPO Treaties
               and the Trips Agreement                                                      
     5     TRIPs and Geographical Indications                               
    5.1      The genesis of Gatt and emergence
               of the TRIPs Agreement                                                         
   5.2      The GATT 1947                                                                         
   5.3      The Uruguay Round                                                                
   5.4      Negotiating history within TRIPs for
               geographical indications                                                         
5.4.1      EC Proposal                                                                               
5.4.2      The Swiss Proposal                                                                   
5.4.3      The US Proposal                                                                       
     5     TRIPs and Geographical Indications—continued
5.4.4      The Proposal by developing countries                                 
5.4.5      The Anell Draft                                                                         
5.4.6      The Brussels Draft                                                                    
5.4.7      The Unified Proposal or the so-called
               “Composite Text”                                                                     
5.4.8      The Dunkel Draft text of December 1991                           
    5.5      Protection of geographical indications
               under TRIPs Agreement                                                        
5.5.1      Protection granted to geographical
               indications under section 3 of the 
               TRIPs Agreement                                                                     
5.5.2      Definition of geographical indications
               —Article 22(1)                                                                           
5.5.3      Substantive standard of protection
               —Article 22(2)                                                                          
5.5.5      The incorporation of Article 10bis of
               the Paris Convention                                                               
5.5.6      Protection of geographical indications
               over trademarks—Article 22(3)                                            
5.5.7      Homonymous indications—Article 22(4)                            
   5.6      Additional protection for geographical
               indication for wines and spirits—Article 23
               of the TRIPs Agreement                                                         
5.6.1      Article 23(1) of TRIPs                                                              
5.6.2      Article 23(2) of TRIPs                                                             
5.6.3      Article 23(3) of TRIPs                                                             
5.6.4      Article 23(4) of TRIPs                                                             
5.6.5      Additional Level of Protection to Wines
               and Spirits—some issues                                                    Extending the scope of Article 23(1)
               of the TRIPs Agreement                                                   The rationale behind extension                                            
    5.7      Negotiations and exceptions—Article 24                             
5.7.1      Article 24(1) of TRIPs                                                              
5.7.2      Article 24(2) of TRIPs                                                             
5.7.3      Article 24(3) of TRIPs                                                             
5.7.4      Article 24(4) of TRIPs                                                             
5.7.5      Article 24(5) of TRIPs                                                              
     5     TRIPs and Geographical Indications—continued
5.7.6      Article 24(6) of TRIPs                                                             
5.7.7      Article 24(7) of TRIPs                                                              
5.7.8      Article 24(8) of TRIPs                                                             
5.7.9      Article 24(9) of TRIPs                                                             
   5.8      Protection of TRIPs right in national laws                            
   5.9      WTO dispute settlement and geographical
  5.10      Improving protection for geographical
5.10.1     Doha Ministerial Conference                                                 
5.10.2     Extension of stricter protection of the
               products other than wines and spirits                                  
5.10.3     Multilateral register of geographical
               indications for wines and spirits                                            
  5.11      Current  discussions of geographical
               indications in the WTO                                                            
5.11.1      The Doha mandate                                                                  
5.11.2     EC’s “claw-back” proposal in the
               agriculture negotiations                                                    Dispute over EC protection
               of geographical indications                                                     
5.11.3     The Hong Kong Ministerial Conference                                       
     6     Protection of Geographical Indication in Other Economy
    6.1      Laws protecting geographical indications
               in United States                                                                        
6.1.1      Trademark regime of protection of
               geographical indications                                                         
6.1.2      Certification marks in US law                                                 
6.1.3      Protection to wines and spirits                                              
   6.2      Laws protecting geographical indications
               in Australia                                                                                 
6.2.1      General overview                                                                     
6.2.2      The Australian Wine and Brandy
               Corporation Act 1980                                                              
6.2.3      Criteria for determination of
               geographical indications                                                         
6.2.4      Who may apply for recognition of
               geographical indication for wine                                           
     6     Protection of Geographical
           Indication in Other Economy—continued
6.2.5      Recognition and registration procedure                                      
6.2.6      Composition of the Australian Register
               of Protected Names                                                                
6.2.7      Penalties in relation to unauthorized use
               of geographical indications for wines                                   
   6.3      Laws protecting geographical indications
               in France                                                                                    
6.3.1      The law of 1905 (The Administrative
6.3.2      The law of 1919 (The Legal Phase)                                        
6.3.3      Roquefort Protection Act of 1925                                         
6.3.4      Decree-Law of 30th July 1935                                               
6.3.5      Law of 28th November 1955                                                  
6.3.6      Law No. 66-482 of July 1966                                                 
6.3.7      Law of 2nd December 1973                                                   
6.3.8      Law of 2nd July 1990                                                               
6.3.9      Decree No. 911-368 of 15th April 1991                                 
6.3.10    Law No. 92-597 of 1st July 1992                                            
6.3.11     Law of 26th July 1993 on
               the consumer code                                                                 
   6.4      Laws protecting geographical indications
               in United Kingdom                                                                  
6.4.1      General overview of the legislation                                      
6.4.2      The law of “passing off”                                                           
6.4.3      Protection of geographical
               indications through the UK Trade
               Marks Act 1994                                                                         
6.4.4      Protection of geographical
               indications after the adoption
               of EU Regulation 2081/92                                                      
6.4.5      Procedure for registration                                                     
6.4.6      Amended Regulation 510/2006                                            
6.4.7      Scope of protection                                                                 
6.4.8      Enforcement                                                                             
6.4.9      International level violations                                                  
6.4.10    Regional level violations                                                          
Part Two
Law on Geographical Indications in India
     7     Need to Protect Geographical Indications—
           An Indian Perspective                                                          
    7.1      Protection of geographical indications in India
               before the Geographical Indications of Goods
               (Registration and Protection) Act 1999                               
   7.2      Protection of geographical indications by
               Indian judiciary                                                                        
   7.3      The Geographical Indications of Goods
               (Registration and Protection) Act 1999                               
7.3.1      Definition of geographical indications                                  
7.3.2      Concept of goods                                                                     
7.3.3      Meaning of indications                                                            
   7.4      Meaning of ‘geographical indications’
               under the GIGA                                                                       
    7.5      Functions of geographical indications                                  
     8     The Registrar and Conditions for Registration        
    8.1      Registrar of Geographical Indications                                  
   8.2      Geographical Indications Registry and
               Offices thereof                                                                          
   8.3      Register of the geographical indications                                       
   8.4      Part A and Part B of the Register                                          
   8.5      Registration to be in respect of certain
               goods and areas                                                                       
   8.6      Condition for registration of geographical
               indications in India                                                                  
   8.7      Registration of homonymous geographical
     9     Procedure for Registration                                            
    9.1      Application for registration                                                     
9.1.1      Filing of geographical indications
9.1.2      Type of applications                                                                 
9.1.3      Content of application                                                             
   9.2      Examination of application                                                     
   9.3      Correction and amendment of application                        
   9.4      Withdrawal of acceptance                                                      
     9     Procedure for Registration—continued
   9.5      Advertisement of application                                                
   9.6      Opposition of application for registration                            
   9.7      Registration                                                                               
   9.8      Authorised user of a geographical
               indication product                                                                   
   9.9      Registration of an authorised user in India                         
9.9.1      Geographical indications agent                                             
9.10      Duration of registration                                                           
  9.11      Renewal and restoration of registration                                       
9.12      Effect of removal from register                                            
9.13      Additional protection to certain goods                                
9.14      Provision for reciprocity                                                         
               Geographical Indication Registration
               procedure in India                                                                  
   10     Effect of Registration                                                     
  10.1      Rights conferred by registration                                           
10.2      Registration to be prima facie evidence
               of validity                                                                                   
10.2.1     Certificate of registration                                                        
10.3      Prohibition of assignment and transmission                       
10.3.1     Status and benefits of geographical
               indications registration in India                                             
   11     Appeals                                                                        
   11.1      Appeals to the Appellate Board                                            
  11.2      Bar on jurisdiction of courts                                                  
  11.3      Procedure of the Appellate Board                                       
  11.4      Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings                    
  11.5      Costs of Registrar in proceedings before
               Appellate Board                                                                       
   12     Remedies and Penalties for Infringement
           and other Offences                                                        
  12.1      Infringement of registered geographical
12.2      Action for passing off for unregistered
               geographical indications                                                         
12.3      Act constituting infringement of registered
               geographical indications                                                         
   12     Remedies and Penalties for Infringement 
           and other Offences—continued
12.4      An Act of unfair competition                                                  
  12.5      Additional protection to certain goods                                
12.6      Enforcement of geographical indication
               of goods                                                                                     
12.6.1     Criminal remedies                                                            Meaning of applying
               geographical indications                                                  Falsifying and falsely applying
               geographical indications                                                  Burden of proof                                                                Penalty for applying false
               geographical indications                                                  Exception–“without intent to
               defraud”                                                                             Punishment for infringement                                         Penalty for selling goods to
               which false geographical
               indication is applied                                                          Exceptions                                                                          Penalty for falsely representing
               geographical indications as
12.6.2    Civil remedies                                                                    Suit for infringement of
               geographical indications to be
               instituted before district court                                      Penalty                                                                                        
  12.7      Cognizance of certain offences                                             
12.7.1     Search and seizure                                                                  
12.8      Cost of defence of prosecution                                             
12.9      Limitation of prosecution                                                       
12.10      The TRIPs Agreement and Indian
               geographical indications legislation                                      
12.11      Registration of Indian geographical
               indications in foreign countries                                             
12.12      India’s perception                                                                    
12.13      Protection of geographical indication
               from becoming generic                                                          
   12     Remedies and Penalties for Infringement 
           and other Offences—continued
12.14      Instance of misuse of Geographical
               Indications Registration in India                                           
               12.14.1                                                           Himalaya case (Bisleri International
                                                                                      Pvt. Ltd. v Mount Everest Mineral
                                                                                      Water Ltd. 2011)
   13     Power of Registrar                                                        
  13.1      Power of Registrar                                                                   
13.2      Exercise of discretionary power                                           
13.3      Evidence before Registrar                                                     
13.4      Power of Registrar to substitute successor
               of deceased                                                                              
  13.5      Power of Registrar to extend time                                       
13.6      Power of Registrar to withdraw or transfer cases              
   14     Registered Geographical Indications of India              
  14.1      Uniqueness of some registered geographical
               indications of India                                                                  
       •      Darjeeling Tea                                                                          
       •      Aranmula Kannadi                                                                   
       •      Pochampalli Ikat                                                                       
       •      Chanderi Fabric                                                                        
       •      Solapur Chaddar                                                                      
       •      Mysore Silk                                                                                
       •      Kancheepuram Silk                                                                 
       •      Kullu Shawl                                                                                
       •      Orissa Ikat                                                                                  
       •      Srikalahasthi Kalamkari                                                           
       •      Coorg Orange                                                                            
       •      Madhubani Painting                                                                 
       •      Thanjavur Painting                                                                   
       •      Malabar Pepper                                                                        
       •      Nakshi Kantha                                                                           
       •      Bastar Dhokra                                                                           
       •      Orissa Pattachitra                                                                      
       •      Dharwad Pedha                                                                        
       •      Pokkali Rice                                                                               
       •      Shantiniketan Leather Goods                                                
       •      Laxman Bhog Mango                                                               
       •      Kashmir Pashmina                                                                    
       •      Naga Mirchi                                                                               
       •      Lucknow Chikan Craft                                                             
       •      Virupakshi Hill Banana                                                            
       •      Feni                                                                                             
       •      Tirupathi Laddu                                                                        
       •      Nasik Valley Wine                                                                    
       •      Central Travancore Jaggery                                                   
       •      Phulkari                                                                                      
       •      Hyderabadi Haleem                                                               
       •      Bhagalpur Silk                                                                           
       •      Udupi Mattu Gulla Brinjal                                                       
       •      Bangalore Blue Grapes                                                           
       •      Lucknow Zardozi                                                                      
       •      Patan Patola                                                                               
       •      Firozabad Glass                                                                         
       •      Kannauj Perfume                                                                     
       •      Warli Painting                                                                            
       •      Meerut Scissors                                                                        
       •      Mizo Chilli                                                                                  
       •      Ratlami Sev                                                                                
       •      Makrana Marble                                                                       
       •      Joynagar Moa                                                                            
   15     Contemporary Issues                                                      
  15.1      Nature of geographical indications                                       
  15.2      Territorial limit                                                                          
  15.3      Protecting indigenous knowledge                                        
  15.4      Dynamism of attributes                                                           
  15.5      Geographical indications in India                                         
  15.6      Promotion of geographical indications
               through traditional knowledge, history
               and tourism                                                                               
  15.7      International issues surrounding
               geographical indication                                                           
  15.8      Multilateral register for wines and spirits                            
  15.9      Geographical indication—extension debate                       
   15     Contemporary Issues—continued
15.10      EU Claw-back proposal                                                           
15.11      Protection of geographical indication
               in different WTO members                                                   
15.12      Role of geographical indication in
               economic development                                                         
        1     The Geographical Indications of Goods
               (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 .................................
        2     The Geographical Indications of Goods
               (Registration and Protection) Rules, 2002.......................................
        3     TRIPs Agreement                                                                       
        4     The Consumer Protection Act, 1986  .......................................
        5     General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1994 (GATT).........
        6     Berne Convention for the Protection
               of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886 ........................................
        7     The Brussels Draft .....................................................................
        8     The Paris Convention for the Protection of
               Industrial Property .....................................................................
        9     The Trade Marks Act, 1999                                                        
      10     Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property
               and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge
               and Folklore                                                                               
      11     Statewise Registration Details of
               Geographical Indication Applications.................................... ...... 

Vandana Singh

BSc, LLM, PhD Faculty of Law, University of Delhi Assistant Professor, USLLS Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

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