Book detail

K.P. Chakravarti's Domestic Enquiry & Punishment
K.P. Chakravarti's Domestic Enquiry & Punishment
Author: Ranadhir Kumar De
Edition: 4th
Year of publication: 2010
No. of pages: 755
ISBN: 9788171772247
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 750.00
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Related interest

An outstanding work relating to labour jurisprudence now in its fourth edition covers all the aspects on the subject, like misconduct in employment, charge-sheet for misconduct, suspension, principle and procedure of domestic enquiry, principles of natural justice, punishment for misconduct, protection from punishment, dismissal without holding domestic enquiry, reinstatement, back wages, compensation, retrenchment, unauthorized absence and so on. Almost all the important verdicts down to the latest such decisions of the Supreme Court and the High Courts have found place. It will surely be treated as a faithful companion of the legal practitioners on the subject, as well as the Judges.

Charge-sheet — mode of service
Wrongful dismissal — compensation for
Union activities — misconduct when?
Natural Justice — non-observance of 
Retrenchment — punishment if
Suspension — punishment when

Chapter
        1     Disciplinary Jurisdiction of Industrial Management                                                              1–41
                  1    Discipline—its meaning and application.............................................................. 1
                  2    Basic idea of discipline linked with master and
                        servant relationship.............................................................................................. 3
                  3    Nature of disciplinary action in industry.............................................................. 5
                  4    Need for and purpose of disciplinary action........................................................ 7
                  5    Handling of grievances and managerial responsibilities...................................... 9
                  6    Mode of enforcement of discipline.................................................................... 13
                  7    Conditions for exercise of managerial power.................................................... 15
                  8    Difference between punitive and non-punitive action........................................ 16
                  9    Restrictions on managerial power to punish the employees—
                        provisions under the Industrial Disputes Act 1947........................................... 22
                10    Restrictions on the employer in regard to action against
                        the ‘protected workmen’.................................................................................... 28
                11    Provisions in the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders)
                        Central Rules 1946............................................................................................ 29
                12    Termination of service simpliciter—when not punitive..................................... 33
                13    Termination in terms of appointment order........................................................ 34
                14    Termination of service in terms of contract of service, not
                        to be challenged for violation of principle of natural justice............................... 34
                15    Termination on expiry of term of employment.................................................. 35
                16    Termination under certified standing order—
                        if to be automatic............................................................................................... 35
                17    Standing order enabling dismissal without
                        holding domestic enquiry.................................................................................. 37
                18    Retrenchment, not penal.................................................................................... 38
        2     Misconduct in Employment       .............................................................................       42–77
                  1    Misconduct in employment—what is................................................................ 42
        2     Misconduct in Employment—continued
                  2    Employees’ misconduct enumerated in the Model Standing
                        Orders under the Standing Orders (Central) Rules 1946................................... 46
                  3    Dismissal is disproportionate for absenteeism................................................... 49
                  4    Unauthorised absence entailing break in service—
                        hearing if necessary before imposing penalty.................................................... 50
                  5    Some acts subversive of discipline not mentioned in
                        the Model Standing Orders............................................................................... 51
                  6    Some more misconducts not enumerated in the
                        Model Standing Orders..................................................................................... 55
                                (i)  Go-slow............................................................................................... 55
                               (ii)  Gherao................................................................................................. 56
                              (iii)  Mass abstention from work................................................................. 57
                              (iv)  Mass misconduct and indiscipline....................................................... 58
                  7    Misconducts at common law............................................................................. 59
                  8    Judicial notice of employees’ misconduct.......................................................... 61
                  9    Union activities when become subversive of discipline..................................... 62
                10    Factory culture and etiquette—varying degrees of
                        misconduct according to factory etiquette.......................................................... 65
                11    Minor and grave misconduct—seriousness of
                        misconduct to be judged in the context of
                        facts and circumstances of each case................................................................. 66
                12    Need for interpretation of ‘misconducts’ in tune with
                        changing values................................................................................................. 69
                13    Strict construction of ‘misconducts’ as provided in
                        Standing Orders................................................................................................ 70
                14    Employee-misconduct to be viewed in a broader
                        social perspective............................................................................................... 74
        3     Charge-sheets for Misconducts                                                                                      78–120
                  1    Charge—what it means in the context of
                        departmental proceedings.................................................................................. 78
                  2    Purpose of charge-sheet.................................................................................... 81
                  3    Charge of misconduct........................................................................................ 82
                  4    Who can issue the charge-sheet......................................................................... 84
                  5    Requisites of valid charge or charges................................................................ 86
                  6    Framing of charge-sheets—guiding principles.................................................. 89
                  7    No particular form of charge-sheet.................................................................... 90
                               (a)  Charge is to be specific describing the specific
                                      name of offences.................................................................................. 91
                               (b)  Omission to mention appropriate standing order................................. 92
                               (c)  Important circumstances to be mentioned............................................ 92
                               (d)  The date and time of incident should be mentioned.............................. 92
                  8    Instances of specific defects in the framing of
                          charges for some common misconducts.......................................................... 93
                               (a)  Charge-sheet must be clear and not vague........................................... 93
                               (b)  Material particulars to be mentioned.................................................... 94
        3     Charge-sheets for Misconducts—continued
                               (c) Reference to any preliminary inquiry to be
                                      avoided in the charge-sheet.................................................................. 95
                               (d) List of documents relied upon and the list of witnesses
                                      to be examined on behalf of the management need be
                                      supplied along with the charge-sheet................................................... 95
                                          (i)   Insubordination and disobedience of orders.............................. 95
                                         (ii)   Riotous behaviour and acts subversive
                                                of discipline............................................................................... 97
                                        (iii)   Negligence, recklessness and culpability................................... 97
                                        (iv)   Habitual negligence, gross negligence and
                                                neglect of duty......................................................................... 100
                                         (v)   Dishonesty or bad motive to be mentioned if
                                                they are ingredient of the charge.............................................. 103
                                        (vi)   When misconduct is habitual then the word
                                                “habitual” to be mentioned in charge-sheet.............................. 103
                                       (vii)   Offending languages when to be mentioned
                                                in the charge-sheet................................................................... 103
                  9    Vagueness of charges, when vitiates enquiry.................................................. 104
                10    Misdescription................................................................................................. 107
                11    Language of the charge should not show that
                          the employee is guilty.................................................................................... 108
                12    Mention of proposed penalty in charge-sheet
                        of the workman............................................................................................... 110
                13    Amendment of the charge................................................................................ 110
                14    Provision of service of charge-sheet in the
                        Standing Order................................................................................................ 111
                15    Issue and service of the charge-sheet............................................................... 112
                16    Service by post and presumption of due service.............................................. 115
                17    Intimation to Union—if necessary................................................................... 116
                18    Reasonable time to give reply.......................................................................... 116
                19    Where charge-sheet is not necessary............................................................... 117
                20    Specimen forms of charge-sheets.................................................................... 117
                              (A)  Draft Form of charge-sheet for minor penalties
                                      where no enquiry is to be held........................................................... 118
                              (B)  Draft Form of charge-sheet for major penalties
                                      where enquiry is to be held................................................................ 118
                21    Suggested forms of charge-sheets for some
                        specific misconducts........................................................................................ 120
        4     Suspension     .................................................................................................. .... 121–152
                  1    Suspension—meaning and scope.................................................................... 121
                  2    Application in industrial law............................................................................ 123
                  3    Types of suspension........................................................................................ 124
                  4    Power of the employer to suspend a worker pending
                        permission of the Tribunal under s. 33 of the Industrial
                        Disputes Act.................................................................................................... 125
        4     Suspension—continued
                  5    Suspension under Standing Orders................................................................. 126
                                (i)  Suspension as punishment................................................................. 127
                               (ii)  Suspension as an interim measure pending
                                      enquiry into alleged misconduct......................................................... 127
                              (iii)  Delayed suspension........................................................................... 130
                              (iv)  Employee on leave............................................................................. 130
                               (v)  Second order of suspension if valid................................................... 130
                              (vi)  Discharge order following suspension set aside,
                                      effect on suspension.......................................................................... 130
                             (vii)  Condition of attending office every day............................................. 130
                            (viii)  Interim suspension in case of arrest, etc............................................. 130
                  6    Reasons for suspension need not be mentioned.............................................. 131
                  7    Service of the suspension order....................................................................... 132
                  8    Date of effect of the suspension order............................................................. 133
                  9    Suspension with retrospective effect............................................................... 134
                10    Deemed suspension of the employee under arrest/detention............................ 134
                11    Indefinite suspension—when constitutes punishment..................................... 135
                12    Suspension order may be challenged on the
                        ground of mala fide......................................................................................... 137
                13    Subsistence allowance for the period of suspension........................................ 137
                14    Subsistence allowance pending application for
                        permission under s. 33(1) or s. 33(3) of the
                        Industrial Disputes Act.................................................................................... 140
                15    Application under s. 33C(2) of the Industrial Disputes Act—
                        not maintainable in case of suspension............................................................ 142
                16    Increase in subsistence allowance from 50% to 75%
                        during first six months of suspension—Labour 
                        Court under s. 33(2) of the Industrial Disputes 
                        Act if competent to allow such increase........................................................... 142
                17    Adverse effect of ‘suspension’ on an employee’s career................................. 145
                18    Revocation of the order of suspension on acquittal
                        from a criminal charge or on the finding of
                        ‘not guilty’ in a domestic enquiry.................................................................... 146
                19    Power of Industrial Tribunal to decide regarding
                        wages for suspension period........................................................................... 150
                20    Dismissal order from the date of suspension—
                        when permissible............................................................................................. 151
        5     Domestic Enquiry—Principles and Procedure           ................................................ ... 153–296
                  1    Domestic enquiry—its purpose and scope...................................................... 154
                  2    Preliminary enquiry vis-a-vis domestic enquiry.............................................. 157
                               (a) Record of preliminary enquiry is not part of
                                      record of regular enquiry................................................................... 159
                               (b)  Report and statement in the preliminary enquiry,
                                      when to be supplied to the delinquent employee................................ 159
                               (c)  Termination of service on the basis of the
                                      preliminary report.............................................................................. 160
        5     Domestic Enquiry—Principles and Procedure—continued
                  3    Omission to hold an enquiry or defective enquiry—its effect.......................... 160
                  4    Fair opportunity in enquiry—its meaning in industrial law............................. 162
                  5    Procedure after service of charge-sheet and before
                        actual holding of enquiry................................................................................. 170
                               (a) Enquiry if can be fixed before receipt of reply to
                                      the charge-sheet................................................................................. 172
                               (b) Whether reply to the charge-sheet to be considered
                                      by enquiry officer before initiating the enquiry.................................. 173
                               (c) Can there be additional charge that the
                                      explanation is false? .......................................................................... 173
                               (d) Reasonable notice to be given for holding enquiry............................ 174
                  6    Selection and appointment of an Enquiry Officer............................................ 174
                               (a) An Enquiry Officer if be a different person from
                                      the disciplinary authority.................................................................... 174
                               (b)  Qualifications of an Enquiry Officer.................................................. 175
                  7    Bias of Enquiry Officer and remedy................................................................ 176
                               (a) Enquiry Officer having personal knowledge
                                      of the incident.................................................................................... 177
                               (b) Acting as a Judge or prosecutor or witness....................................... 177
                               (c) Officer of the Company acting as Enquiry Officer,
                                      no bias............................................................................................... 178
                               (d) Company’s lawyer or legal adviser as Enquiry Officer..................... 178
                               (e) Outsider as Enquiry Officer............................................................... 178
                               (f) Bias because of pre-committed views................................................ 178
                               (g) The pecuniary bias............................................................................. 179
                               (h) Personal ill-will against the worker.................................................... 179
                                (i) Plea of bias to be raised at the earliest opportunity............................. 180
                                (j) Bias of one of the Enquiry Officers................................................... 180
                               (k) Request for change of Enquiry Officer.............................................. 180
                  8    Commencement of enquiry—confession or admission
                        of guilt and its effect........................................................................................ 181
                  9    Commencement of enquiry—denial of guilt.................................................... 185
                10    Commencement of enquiry proceedings.......................................................... 186
                               (a)  Notice of enquiry............................................................................... 186
                               (b) Rules of natural justice violated, if enquiry
                                      proceeds without notice..................................................................... 188
                               (c) Prayer for adjournment of enquiry..................................................... 188
                11    General principles to be followed in an enquiry.............................................. 189
                               (a) No fixed rules for conducting an enquiry.......................................... 189
                               (b) Presenting Officer.............................................................................. 190
                               (c) Accused worker—his right to be represented by
                                      another employee, or by a Union representative................................ 191
                               (d) Right of representation by a lawyer or legal expert............................ 196
                               (e) Interpreter.......................................................................................... 200
                               (f) Observer............................................................................................ 201
        5     Domestic Enquiry—Principles and Procedure—continued
                12    Non-appearance of the accused—ex parte proceedings................................... 201
                13    Ex parte proceedings when justifiable—when not........................................... 202
                14    How to proceed with the enquiry—functions and duties
                        of the Enquiry Officer..................................................................................... 206
                               (a) Notice for preliminary hearing........................................................... 207
                               (b) Proceedings at preliminary hearing.................................................... 207
                15    Presentation of the Company’s case—procedure to be followed..................... 209
                               (a) Procedure of enquiry......................................................................... 210
                               (b) Technical rules of evidence not attracted............................................ 211
                               (c) Supply of copies of documents to the worker.................................... 212
                               (d) Opportunity to the accused to inspect documents
                                      relating to the charge sought to be put in evidence
                                      against the employee.......................................................................... 212
                               (e) List of witnesses to be supplied before enquiry................................. 215
                               (f) Tendering oral evidence..................................................................... 215
                               (g) Presenting officer has discretion not to produce
                                      all management witnesses.................................................................. 217
                               (h) Opportunity to the accused for cross-examination
                                      of prosecution witnesses.................................................................... 217
                                (i) Formal cross-examination, no part of natural justice.......................... 220 
                                (j) Right of Enquiry Officer to control cross-examination
                                      of witness.......................................................................................... 220
                               (k) Re-examination of prosecution witnesses.......................................... 221
                                (l) Power of the Enquiry Officer to put questions to
                                      witnesses to elicit further facts or information................................... 222
                              (m) Recording of signatures on every page of the
                                      record of evidence.............................................................................. 222
                               (n) Enquiry officer to maintain a Daily Order Sheet
                                      and prepare records of daily proceeding............................................ 223
                16    Examination of the defence witnesses—adequate
                        opportunity for adducing evidence.................................................................. 223
                               (a) Opportunity for adducing evidence.................................................... 223
                               (b) Opportunity for examining witnesses................................................ 226
                               (c) Cross-examination of the defence witnesses...................................... 226
                               (d) Re-examination of the witnesses by the accused................................ 227
                               (e) Cross-examination of defence witness by the
                                      Enquiry Officer.................................................................................. 227
                17    Examination and cross-examination of the accused......................................... 228
                18    Arguments....................................................................................................... 230
                19    Appreciation of evidence in a domestic enquiry.............................................. 230
                20    Whether past record of worker can be taken into account................................ 233
                21    Hearsay evidence—acceptability in domestic enquiry..................................... 234
                22    General principles of Evidence Act will apply................................................. 236
                23    Guidelines for Enquiry Officer........................................................................ 238
                24    Degree of proof in a domestic enquiry—standard of proof
                        different from criminal cases........................................................................... 239
        5     Domestic Enquiry—Principles and Procedure—continued
                25    Proof of circumstantial evidence...................................................................... 240
                26    Guidelines for appreciation of evidence in domestic enquiry........................... 242
                               (a)  Suspicion to be distinguished from proof.......................................... 242
                               (b) Reliance on ‘no evidence’ is fatal for Enquiry
                                      Proceedings....................................................................................... 243
                               (c)  It is necessary to distinguish “No evidence”
                                      from “some evidence”........................................................................ 243
                               (d)  Generally........................................................................................... 244
                27    Recording of the proceeding............................................................................ 246
                28    Non-recording of the proceedings—its effect on the enquiry.......................... 247
                29    Common proceedings...................................................................................... 247
                30    Necessity to give reasoned report.................................................................... 249
                31    Contents of the report of the Enquiry Officer.................................................. 250
                32    Action on the enquiry report............................................................................ 252
                33    Fresh enquiry into the same allegation on the conclusion
                        of the first enquiry— question of validity........................................................ 253
                               (a) Reasons for fresh enquiry.................................................................. 253
                               (b) No bar to fresh enquiry into the same charges................................... 253
                               (c) De novo enquiry where not permissible............................................ 255
                34    Domestic Tribunal vis-a-vis Industrial Tribunal.............................................. 257
                               (a) Scope of domestic Tribunal............................................................... 257
                               (b) Scope of Industrial Tribunals ............................................................ 258
                               (c) Tribunal’s power to interfere with the discharge
                                      and dismissal of workmen................................................................. 261
                               (d)  Interference with quantum of punishment.......................................... 264
                               (e) Extent of Tribunal’s power after insertion of
                                      s. 11A in Industrial Disputes Act...................................................... 265
                               (f) Adducing fresh evidence................................................................... 267
                               (g) Limits of power of Industrial Tribunal............................................... 267
                               (h) Interim relief by Labour Court or Tribunal........................................ 269
                                (i) Judicial review of Tribunal’s order.................................................... 270
                                (j) Labour Court/Tribunal’s power to award back wages....................... 271
                35    Domestic enquiry vis-a-vis criminal proceedings............................................ 272
                36    Simultaneous initiation of departmental and
                        criminal proceedings........................................................................................ 273
                37    Stay of disciplinary proceeding pending criminal trial..................................... 275
                38    Acquittal does not ipso facto affect a departmental enquiry............................. 278
                39    Effect of conviction from Criminal Court, on
                        departmental proceedings................................................................................ 284
                40    Dismissal can be based on conviction by Criminal Court
                        —if rules permit.............................................................................................. 286
                41    Effect on dismissal when conviction is set aside............................................. 287
                42    If the workman is entitled to full back wages when
                        reinstated after conviction is set aside.............................................................. 287
        5     Domestic Enquiry—Principles and Procedure—continued
                43    Enquiry—if necessary in the case of an employee convicted
                        by a Criminal Court......................................................................................... 289
                44    Enquiry—if called for against an employee under
                        detention in police custody. ............................................................................ 292
                45    Dismissal for conviction—if violates s. 12 of
                        Probation of Offenders Act 1958.................................................................... 294
                46    Call of further witnesses.................................................................................. 295
                47    Model Report and finding by the Enquiry Officer........................................... 295
        6     Vitiating Factors in a Domestic Enquiry                                                                  .... 297–359
                  1    Identifying vitiating factors.............................................................................. 297
                  2    Enquiry how vitiated—(A) Non-observance of the rules
                        of natural justice; (B) Bias and (C) Mala fides................................................ 298
                              (A)  Non-observance of the Rules of Natural Justice................................ 298
                                           (i)  Meaning and scope of “natural justice”.................................. 298
                                          (ii) Application of the principles of natural justice
                                                 to disciplinary proceedings..................................................... 303
                                         (iii) Principle of natural justice to be implied
                                                 in Standing Orders................................................................. 304
                                         (iv) Principle of natural justice if to be implied
                                                 in settlements or agreement..................................................... 305
                                          (v) Absence of statutory regulation, rule of
                                                 natural justice to be followed. ................................................ 305
                                         (vi)  Basic principle of natural justice in
                                                 domestic enquiry.................................................................... 308
                                        (vii) Effect of non-observance of principles
                                                 of natural justice in domestic proceedings,
                                                 illustrative cases...................................................................... 309
                                       (viii) Multimember enquiry and bias of one member...................... 313
                                         (ix) Denial of personal hearing...................................................... 314
                                          (x) Minimum and maximum of hearing....................................... 318
                              (B) Bias—as a vitiating factor.................................................................. 320
                                          (i)   Personal bias. ......................................................................... 322
                                         (ii)   Pecuniary bias......................................................................... 323
                                        (iii)   Official or departmental bias.................................................... 324
                                        (iv)   Analysis of bias in domestic proceedings........................... ... 326
                                         (v)   Tests for real likelihood of bias............................................... 327
                                        (vi)   Bias—to constitute an incurable defect
                                                in the enquiry........................................................................... 329
                              (C)  Mala fide exercise of power—what it means..................................... 330
                                          (i)   Mala fides and bias distinguished............................................ 333
                                         (ii)   Distinction between malice and mala fide................................ 334
                                        (iii)   Proof of bias and mala fides.................................................... 335
                  3    Colourable exercise of power—its meaning and
                        application in the sphere of employment.......................................................... 337
                  4    Perverse finding or failure to record a finding in
                        disciplinary proceedings—its effect................................................................. 337
        6     Vitiating Factors in a Domestic Enquiry—continued
                  5    Other vitiating factors in a domestic enquiry................................................... 340
                  6    Violation of natural justice if per se illegal....................................................... 343
                  7    Disproportionate penalty—Tribunal’s power to
                        interfere under s. 11A...................................................................................... 344
                  8    Jurisdiction of the Tribunal under s. 33(2)(b) of
                        the Industrial Disputes Act.............................................................................. 346
                  9    Some questions and case-laws on defective enquiry....................................... 347
        7     End of First Stage of Domestic Enquiry—Findings of
               the Enquiry Officer      ....................................................................................... .... 360–385
                  1    Stages of domestic enquiry.............................................................................. 360
                  2    Findings of the Enquiry Officer—nature and scope........................................ 361
                  3    Criteria of a proper finding.............................................................................. 363
                  4    Requirements of an enquiry report.................................................................. 365
                  5    Giving reasons by Enquiry Officer, essential.............................................. ... 370
                  6    Where change in the Enquiry Officer takes place
                        during enquiry proceedings............................................................................. 372
                  7    Recommendation for punishment—if forms
                        part of the finding............................................................................................ 373
                  8    Perverse finding.............................................................................................. 374
                               (a) Tests.................................................................................................. 375
                               (b) Perverse finding and wrong finding distinguished............................ 376
                               (c) Effect of perverse finding.................................................................. 378
                  9    Enquiry finding vis-a-vis finding of the punishing authority........................... 378
                10    Tribunal’s power to interfere with the enquiry
                        finding—to what extent permissible................................................................ 379
                                      Tribunal’s jurisdiction in disciplinary matters.................................... 379
                11    Power of Tribunal to interfere with dismissal order........................................ 382
        8     Punishment—Law and Principle                                                                            .... 386–492
                  1    Punishment—what it means in industrial law.................................................. 386
                  2    Rationale behind punitive action...................................................................... 388
                  3    Quantum of punishment—criteria................................................................... 390
                  4    Punishment to be proportionate with the gravity
                        of offence........................................................................................................ 397
                  5    Types of punishment....................................................................................... 400
                                (i)  Fines.................................................................................................. 402
                               (ii)  Suspension........................................................................................ 403
                              (iii)  Stoppage of annual increment............................................................ 405
                              (iv)  Stoppage of increments when amounts
                                      to major punishment.......................................................................... 406
                               (v)  Reduction in rank............................................................................... 408
                              (vi)  Dismissal........................................................................................... 411
                  6    Discharge (removal) and dismissal distinguished............................................ 411
                  7    Termination and discharge............................................................................... 414
        8     Punishment—Law and Principle—continued
                  8    Discharge by way of punishment.................................................................... 416
                  9    dismissal in disguise of discharge simpliciter—
                        application to particular cases.......................................................................... 416
                               (a)  In respect of temporary employees.................................................... 417
                               (b)  Termination of the service of a Casual Labourer
                                      Acquiring Temporary Status.............................................................. 420
                                        (A)   Termination of Employment in
                                                Terms of Contract.................................................................... 421
                                        (B)   Termination of Service for Misconduct
                                                without Holding Enquiry—Validity of
                                                the Punishment........................................................................ 423
                                        (C)   Termination in terms of Appointment Order........................... 425
                                        (D)   Retrenchment Whether Penal or not........................................ 426
                                        (E)   Termination of permanent workmen........................................ 427
                10    Termination of probationers............................................................................ 428
                               (a)  Simple discharge................................................................................ 428
                               (b) Discharge of probationer when penal................................................ 433
                               (c)   Termination of apprentice.................................................................. 434
                               (d)   In respect of casual workers ............................................................. 435
                               (e) In respect of a part-time worker employed for
                                      more than a decade, etc...................................................................... 436
                11    Discharge when amounts to punishment......................................................... 437
                12    Abandonment of work by the workman and discharge
                        by the management.......................................................................................... 442
                13    Discharge for physical incapacity.................................................................... 444
                14    Loss of confidence.......................................................................................... 444
                15    Termination punitive or not—to be inferred from
                        surrounding circumstances.............................................................................. 446
                16    Discharge simpliciter whether invalid—illustrative cases................................ 448
                17    Termination as a result of disciplinary action 
                        punitive in nature and not to attract s. 25 of the
                        Industrial Disputes Act.................................................................................... 451
                18    Grounds of dismissal...................................................................................... 455
                                (i) Insubordination and wilful disobedience of
                                      lawful orders...................................................................................... 457
                               (ii)  Habitual drunkenness and intemperance............................................ 459
                              (iii) Habitual absence from duty or lack of
                                      devotion to duty................................................................................. 460
                              (iv) Overstayal of sanctioned leave and absence
                                      without leave...................................................................................... 461
                               (v) Unauthorised absence entailing break in service—
                                      hearing if necessary before imposing the penalty............................... 462
                              (vi) Malingering....................................................................................... 463
                             (vii) Habitual negligence or neglect of duty............................................... 464
                            (viii) Any other dereliction of duty, not considered trivial.......................... 467
        8     Punishment—Law and Principle—continued
                              (ix) Moral turpitude involving theft, fraud, acts of
                                      dishonesty or acceptance of illegal gratification, etc........................... 468
                               (x) Willful damage or loss to employer’s goods or property................... 473
                              (xi) Violence............................................................................................. 474
                             (xii) Vilifying Officers and co-employees................................................. 475
                            (xiii) Any act endangering the safety of co-employees
                                      or the property of the employer.......................................................... 475
                            (xiv) Acts detrimental to interest and prestige
                                      of organisation................................................................................... 476
                19    Consideration of extenuating circumstances.................................................... 476
                20    Strike and rowdy conduct by striking workmen.............................................. 477
                               (a)  Rowdy conduct and violent activities during strike............................ 478
                               (b)  Right to strike is circumscribed by legislation.................................... 480
                               (c) Participation in illegal strike and incitement thereof........................... 481
                                         (1)   Strike in Breach of Contract. .................................................. 482
                                         (2)   Strike during the pendency of Conciliation
                                                and Adjudication Proceedings. ............................................... 484
                                         (3)   Strike During the Operation of Settlement
                                                or Award................................................................................. 484
                                         (4)   Social justice vis-a-vis punishment for strike.......................... 485
                21    Right to reinstatement on the termination of strike........................................... 486
                22    Payment of wages for the period of strike—to what
                        extent permissible............................................................................................ 488
                23    Penalty of dismissal in strike—when justified................................................. 489
                24    Drastic punishment/penalty for illegal strike under
                        the Essential Services Maintenance Act........................................................... 490
        9     Awards of Punishment and Final Orders of the
               Punishing Authority                                                                                            .... 493–542
                  1    Punishing authority—who is—higher/lower authority
                        cannot impose penalty..................................................................................... 493
                  2    Decision to impose penalty—second stage...................................................... 500
                  3    Final order of the punishing authority—
                        principles to be followed................................................................................. 501
                                (i) Mechanical approach to punishment.................................................. 501
                               (ii) Where extraneous materials enters into
                                      consideration process......................................................................... 502
                              (iii) Failure to take into consideration extenuating factors......................... 502
                              (iv) Relying on past bad record without warning..................................... 502
                               (v) Getting unduly influenced by trade union activities
                                      of the employee.................................................................................. 502
                              (vi) Undue leniency or vindictiveness affects the
                                      quantum of punishment..................................................................... 502
                             (vii) Misplaced Sympathy......................................................................... 503
                            (viii) Non-application of mind where convicted by
                                      criminal court..................................................................................... 503
                              (ix) Punishment to take prospective effect only........................................ 503
        9     Awards of Punishment and Final order of the
               Punishing Authority—continued
                  4    Punishing authority may look beyond present delinquency............................. 504
                               (a)  Past record of the worker—if can be considered
                                      by punishing authority....................................................................... 504
                               (b) Punishment for misconduct other than that
                                      mentioned in the charge-sheet............................................................ 504
                               (c) Reference to opinion of others........................................................... 505
                  5    When the punishing authority differs from the conclusion
                        of Enquiry Officer........................................................................................... 505
                  6    Award of punishment for misconduct............................................................. 506
                  7    Principle governing the particular penalty to be imposed
                        by the employer............................................................................................... 508
                  8    Discrimination in awarding punishment.......................................................... 509
                  9    Punishment to be commensurate with the gravity
                        of the misconduct. .......................................................................................... 511
                10    Two-fold importance of the provision of s. 11A of the
                        Industrial Disputes Act.................................................................................... 515
                               (a)  Restraining indiscriminate dismissal.................................................. 515
                               (b)  Interference with quantum of sentence............................................... 518
                11    Reformative approach to imposition of punishment........................................ 521
                12    Quantum of punishment to be decided on the minor
                        and major misconducts.................................................................................... 525
                               (a)  Matching dismissal with nature of misconduct 
                                      held to be a serious consideration...................................................... 527
                               (b)  Subversive activities are serious misconduct..................................... 529
                               (c)  Warning and reprimand—to what effect............................................ 532
                                          (i)   As a matter of guidance........................................................... 532
                                         (ii)   As a measure of punishment................................................... 532
                                        (iii)   Reprimand............................................................................... 533
                13    The employer cannot impose penalty not provided in
                        Standing Orders or rules................................................................................. 533
                14    Resignation operating as a penalty................................................................... 534
                15    Imposition of fines and deduction from pay on account of
                        unauthorised absence....................................................................................... 535
                16    Communication of penalty order..................................................................... 535
                               (a)  What is the effective date of penalty................................................... 535
                               (b) Punishment takes prospective effect.................................................. 537
                               (c) Means of communication of punishment order
                                      as per Standing Order........................................................................ 539
                               (d) Communication through third party................................................... 539
                17    Right of appeal under Standing Orders........................................................... 539
                18    Employee’s right to full back wages during pendency
                        of appeal by employer preferred before High Court
                        and Supreme Court against award of reinstatement......................................... 540
       10     Protection from Punishment under Certain Specified Circumstances                    ........ .... 543–585
                  1    Restraint put on employer to take retaliatory action in
                        modification of condition of employment to the
                        prejudice of the workman raising industrial disputes....................................... 543
                  2    Restraint on the employer under s. 33 of
                        the Industrial Disputes Act.............................................................................. 546
                  3    Relative scope of, and distinction between s. 33(1)(b)
                        and s. 33(2)(b) of the Industrial Disputes Act—an appraisal.......................... 547
                               (a)  Connected with dispute...................................................................... 549
                               (b)  Workman concerned in the dispute.................................................... 549
                               (c) Object of granting approval............................................................... 554
                               (d) Tribunal’s power under s. 33(1) or s. 33(2)(b).................................. 556
                               (e) Coditions to be fulfilled..................................................................... 561
                               (f) Action, payment and application to be simultaneous.......................... 563
                               (g) Delay can be explained...................................................................... 564
                  4    Suspension pending permission of the appropriate
                        authority under s. 33 of the Act....................................................................... 566
                  5    Matter not connected with the dispute............................................................. 567
                  6    Matters related to ‘protected workmen’ during the
                        pendency of a dispute...................................................................................... 568
                               (a) Order relating to discharge or dismissal............................................. 568
                               (b) Orders relating to retrenchment.......................................................... 572
                  7    Refusal of permission—effect......................................................................... 572
                  8    Provisions of s. 33 not followed, effect on dismissal order............................. 577
                  9    Finding of approval under s. 33(2)(b) if binding on
                        subsequent industrial dispute raised................................................................ 578
                10    Refusal of approval, not binding on subsequent proceedings.......................... 579
                11    Provisions of s. 33 not followed by employer—employee’s
                        right under s. 33A........................................................................................... 579
                               (a)  Pending proceedings—meaning........................................................ 582
                               (b) Dismissal—when becomes effective................................................. 584
       11     Reinstatement, Back Wages and Compensation              ............................................... 586–622
                  1    Remedies for wrongful dismissal/discharge—reinstatement  ......................... 586
                                (i) Contract of personal service............................................................... 587
                               (ii) Loss of confidence denuding right of reinstatement........................... 588
                              (iii) Reinstatement vis-a-vis compensation
                                      in industrial law................................................................................. 590
                              (iv) Choice between reinstatement and compensation
                                      to be made with reference to the circumstances
                                      of the case.......................................................................................... 590
                               (v) No hard and fast rule can be laid down in
                                      dealing with the question................................................................... 592
                  2    Right to back wages—if a rule after the order of discharge
                        is set aside....................................................................................................... 594
                  3    Illustrations—making awards of reinstatement
                        and back wages............................................................................................... 599
       11     Reinstatement, Back Wages and Compensation—continued
                  4    Relief of reinstatement—quantum of relief in terms of full
                        or part back wages........................................................................................... 606
                                (i) Emoluments received elsewhere........................................................ 608
                               (ii) Normal rule may be departed in suitable
                                      circumstances..................................................................................... 609
                              (iii) Refusal of full back wages, where not justified................................. 610
                  5    Compensation when can be awarded for wrongful
                        dismissal or termination of service.................................................................. 611
                               Loss of confidence as a bar to reinstatement............................................ 611
                  6    Compensation—when the award of reinstatement is not
                        complied with by the employer........................................................................ 617
                  7    Quantum of compensation—how to be determined......................................... 618
                  8    Computation of the amount of compensation.................................................. 619
                  9    Remedies by civil suits—civil court’s jurisdiction
                        in matters of industrial disputes....................................................................... 621
       12     The Epilogue    ...................................................................................................... 623–627
Appendix
       Suggested Forms                                  629–661

Ranadhir Kumar De

BCom, LLB, Advocate, Calcutta High Court, Central Administrative Tribunal & State Administrative Tribunal, Calcutta

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