Book detail

A.B. Majumder's Motor Accident Claims
A.B. Majumder's Motor Accident Claims
Author: M.R. Mallick
Edition: 5th
Year of publication: 2012, with supplement 2013
No. of pages: 757
ISBN: 9788171772223
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 930.00
You pay 790.50
Related interest

This illuminating work steps into its fifth edition with a rich content on the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act highlighting the significant changes during the intervening period since the last edition. The issues dealt with include—no fault liability, hit and run cases, contributory negligence, vicarious liability, compensation on structured formula basis, joint-tort feasors, res ipsa loquitur, solatium scheme, quantum of compensation, multiplier method etc. The topics replete with niceties vividly discussed make it indispensable to legal practitioners and judges alike.

• No fault liability 
• Contributory negligence 
• Vicarious liability 
• Hit and run cases 
• Compensation on structured formula basis 
• Quantum of compensation 
• Joint-tort feasors 
• Res ipsa loquitur 
• Multiplier method 
• Solatium scheme

Comparative Chart.........................................................................................................     [77]
Chapter
        1     Laws on the Subject           ....................................................................................... 1
Preliminary.................................................................................................................. 1
Laws on the subject—ss. 140 to 176 of the Motor Vehicles Act 1988....................... 2
Motor Vehicles Act 1988............................................................................................ 3
        2     Liability without Fault                                                                                               4
Legislative changes..................................................................................................... 6
No fault liability scheme.............................................................................................. 6
Scope of this Chapter.................................................................................................. 8
Object.......................................................................................................................... 8
Summary enquiry by the Claims Tribunal................................................................... 8
No burden on the claimant to plead or establish
    absence of negligence.............................................................................................. 9
Insurer not to raise statutory defence........................................................................... 9
Identity of the vehicle not established.......................................................................... 9
Section 140 not retrospective.................................................................................... 10
Quantum under s. 140............................................................................................... 10
Arising out of............................................................................................................ 10
Application under s. 140 even without filing an application
    under s. 166........................................................................................................... 10
Dependency of the claimant if to be proved.............................................................. 11
Permanent disablement.............................................................................................. 11
Enquiry before passing interim award under s. 140 of the Act................................. 11
The question of negligence of any party not needed to be proved............................. 12
Practice and procedure.............................................................................................. 13
Joint liability.............................................................................................................. 14
Liability of insurance company under s. 140............................................................. 14
Owner of the vehicle [s. 140(1)]............................................................................... 14
Financier of the vehicle............................................................................................. 14
Liability of the driver................................................................................................. 14
        2     Liability without Fault—continued
Service of notice........................................................................................................ 14
Interim award to be adjusted with final award........................................................... 14
Interest...................................................................................................................... 14
Deposit of amount in bank in fixed deposit............................................................... 15
Claim under s. 163A of the Act................................................................................ 15
Res judicata............................................................................................................... 15
Appeal....................................................................................................................... 15
Revision.................................................................................................................... 15
        3     Insurance of Motor Vehicles against Third Party Risks                                                    16
Legislative history..................................................................................................... 17
Third party—meaning............................................................................................... 17
Dispute as to insurance cover.................................................................................... 18
Compulsory insurance of Government vehicle......................................................... 18
Exemption to vehicles owned by the State Transport undertaking............................ 18
A gratuitous passenger of a private vehicle............................................................... 19
Third party risk......................................................................................................... 19
Owner of the vehicle does not come within the
    expression “third party”......................................................................................... 19
Owner of the vehicle to take insurance...................................................................... 19
Legislative history..................................................................................................... 21
Section 147 to be given wider meaning..................................................................... 21
Insurer’s liability—no maximum limit...................................................................... 21
Arising out of use of vehicle..................................................................................... 21
Liability of insurance company under the policy....................................................... 22
Insurance policy issued prior to enforcement of Motor
    Vehicles Act 1988................................................................................................. 22
Insurer cannot avoid liability on the plea that the driver
    had no driving licence............................................................................................ 22
Liability of insurer under the third party risk—
    when arises—when not......................................................................................... 23
Insurance company’s liability of the passengers carried
    in goods vehicle..................................................................................................... 24
Gratuitous passenger in a private vehicle.................................................................. 25
Owner of the vehicle................................................................................................. 26
Employee of the insured............................................................................................ 26
Policy when becomes operative................................................................................ 26
Policy cancelled......................................................................................................... 26
Insurer having limited liability................................................................................... 27
Labourers travelling a tractor..................................................................................... 27
Insurance policy covering risk of paid driver............................................................ 27
Accident in overloaded stage carriage....................................................................... 27
Incorrect mention of the chassis number and engine number
    of the vehicle in policy........................................................................................... 28
Section 147(5)—breach of term of policy................................................................. 28
Driver was having a fake licence............................................................................... 28
Driver not renewed licence on the date of accident.................................................... 29
        3     Insurance of Motor Vehicles against Third Party Risks—continued
Legislative history..................................................................................................... 31
Liability of the insurer............................................................................................... 31
Policy of insurance issued on the date of accident..................................................... 32
Liability of the insurance company under s. 149(1).................................................. 33
Section 149(4) and proviso limited grounds of liability and
    third party claims................................................................................................... 34
Section 149(5)—limited amount of liability in insurance
    contract and third parties........................................................................................ 34
Section 149(2)—defences available to the insurer..................................................... 34
Right and scope of the defences available to the insurer
    under s. 149(2) read with s. 149(7) of the Act...................................................... 34
Plea of limited liability of the insurer......................................................................... 35
Fundamental breach of the insurance contract to be established................................ 35
Driver not having proper driving licence................................................................... 36
Driving licence expired but not renewed within time................................................ 37
Licence found to be fake........................................................................................... 37
Driver not authorised to drive transport vehicle........................................................ 38
Truck driver causing accident—no licence to drive truck.......................................... 38
Driver holding learner’s licence................................................................................ 38
Overloading of vehicle.............................................................................................. 38
Insurer paid compensation when there was breach of
    condition of policy................................................................................................. 39
Abetment of appeal against driver on account of his death—effect........................... 41
Accident taking place during a few hours of interregnum between
    the expiry of the first policy and commencement by next policy........................... 42
Deemed transfer of insurance policy......................................................................... 43
Extent of liability of the insurer in case of deemed transfer....................................... 44
Intimation of transfer given to R.T.A........................................................................ 44
Liability of insurance company even if no intimation given...................................... 44
Section 158(6)—direction by Supreme Court for strict and
    prompt compliance................................................................................................ 45
Legislative history..................................................................................................... 47
Hit and run motor accident........................................................................................ 48
Grievous hurt............................................................................................................ 48
Compensation to be paid by the insurance company................................................. 49
Fixed amount of compensation................................................................................. 49
Payment of compensation in hit and run motor accident cases.................................. 49
Claim under s. 161 vis-a-vis s. 140 of the Act.......................................................... 49
Objection of insurance company before Claims Tribunal
    and petitioner’s compensation under ss. 140 and 166
    is not maintainable................................................................................................. 49
Identification of vehicle............................................................................................. 50
Refund of compensation........................................................................................... 50
Obligation of MAC Tribunal under sub-sec. (2) of s. 162........................................ 51
Object........................................................................................................................ 51
Solatium scheme....................................................................................................... 52
Solatium fund under Motor Vehicles Act 1939........................................................ 53
        3     Insurance of Motor Vehicles against Third Party Risks—continued
Solatium fund under s. 161 of the Motor Vehicles Act 1988.................................... 53
Delay in disposal of claim petition under s. 161 of the Act....................................... 53
Duty of the claimant in hit and run motor accident case............................................ 53
Solatium Scheme 1989.............................................................................................. 53
Form I....................................................................................................................... 58
Form II...................................................................................................................... 59
Form III.................................................................................................................... 60
Form IV.................................................................................................................... 60
Form V..................................................................................................................... 61
        4     Compensation on Structured Formula Basis                                                                  62
Scope and object of compensation on structured formula basis ............................... 62
Second Schedule—if to be followed in all circumstances......................................... 63
Applicability of second schedule in a claim under s. 166 of the Act......................... 63
Scope limited............................................................................................................. 63
Object of s. 163A...................................................................................................... 63
Social security provision........................................................................................... 64
The payment of compensation for no fault liability
    under structured formula—final............................................................................ 64
Section 163B............................................................................................................. 64
Power of claimant to opt for either under s. 163A or 166 of the Act........................ 64
Amendment petition to scale down income to invoke s. 163A.................................. 64
Claim petition under s. 166 dismissed—prayer to convert the
    petition to claim under s. 163A.............................................................................. 65
Section 163A—analysed........................................................................................... 65
Section 163A provides for expeditious payment of compensation............................ 66
Statutory liability of the insurer................................................................................. 66
Who can make a claim for compensation under s. 163A........................................... 66
Section 163A—if retrospective................................................................................. 66
Requirement to attract s. 163A of the Act................................................................. 67
No fault liability........................................................................................................ 68
Amendment of the application under s. 163A........................................................... 68
Amendment to reduce the annual income.................................................................. 68
Claim petition under s. 163A—defence of insurance company—
    not proper.............................................................................................................. 69
No permanent disablement—no claim under s. 163A............................................... 69
Driver a joint tortfeaser............................................................................................. 69
Death of the owner of the vehicle in motor accident.................................................. 69
A person cannot be claimant and also owner of the vehicle...................................... 69
Compensation under s. 163A not interim.................................................................. 70
Gratuitous passenger................................................................................................. 70
Claim under s. 163A—grounds for challenge........................................................... 70
Liability under s. 163A—a statutory liability............................................................ 70
Table in Second Schedule......................................................................................... 70
Liability of the insurance company in excess of contractual limit.............................. 71
Amendment of claim petition to convert it to one under s. 166
    of the Act............................................................................................................... 71
        4     Compensation on Structured Formula Basis—continued
Withdrawal of petition under s. 163A without liberty to sue
    afresh on the same cause of action......................................................................... 71
Claim petition under s. 92A of old Act—prayer to convert it into
    under s. 163A of the new Act............................................................................... 71
Choice of forum........................................................................................................ 71
Negligence of the driver not required to prove.......................................................... 71
Negligence of the victim............................................................................................ 72
Compensation under s. 163A—when insurance company not liable........................ 72
Compromise in a petition under s. 163A of the Act—no effect on
    petition of other claimant under s. 166 of the Act.................................................. 73
Determination of compensation on structured formula basis..................................... 73
Multiplier under Second Schedule............................................................................ 77
Deduction.................................................................................................................. 78
        5     Claims Tribunal       ............................................................................................... 80
Legislative changes................................................................................................... 80
Constitution of Claims Tribunal................................................................................ 81
Qualification to be members of the Tribunal............................................................. 81
Two or more Claims Tribunal—distribution of business.......................................... 82
State Government not bound to constitute a Claims Tribunal.................................... 82
Claims Tribunal if a court.......................................................................................... 82
Territorial jurisdiction................................................................................................ 83
“Refer the claim to the civil court”............................................................................. 83
Extent of jurisdiction of the Claims Tribunal............................................................. 84
Damage to property................................................................................................... 85
Claims outside the purview of Claims Tribunal........................................................ 86
Negligence of outside agency.................................................................................... 87
Power of superintendence of High Court.................................................................. 87
Section 24, CPC........................................................................................................ 88
Section 25, CPC........................................................................................................ 88
If High Court can entertain revision under s. 115, CPC against
    the award of the Tribunal....................................................................................... 88
Power of review of Tribunal..................................................................................... 88
        6     Application for Compensation before a 
              Motor Accident Claims Tribunal                ................................................................ 89
Legislative changes................................................................................................... 90
Form of application................................................................................................... 93
Joint application if proper.......................................................................................... 93
Joint application by legal representatives of the victim.............................................. 93
Joint application by legal representative of the deceased
    victim and the injured............................................................................................ 94
Two applications by different legal representatives of
    the same victim...................................................................................................... 94
One claim petition under s. 163A and other under s. 166 of the Act......................... 94
Claim petition—maintainability................................................................................. 94
Arising out of use of motor vehicles......................................................................... 95
Passengers of bus attacked by miscreants................................................................. 95
        6     Application for Compensation before
              a Motor Accident Claims Tribunal—continued
Victim being rash and negligent—no claim under s. 166 of the Act......................... 96
Cause of action.......................................................................................................... 96
Persons competent to file an application for compensation....................................... 97
Agent of the injured.................................................................................................. 98
Death of injured pending application for compensation............................................ 99
Injuries.................................................................................................................... 100
Owner of the property............................................................................................. 100
Claim for damage to property—an independent right.............................................. 100
Agent...................................................................................................................... 100
Personal law of succession..................................................................................... 103
Right of legal representative of the deceased........................................................... 103
Legal representatives of the claimant....................................................................... 103
Widow, children and mother................................................................................... 104
Application of widow alone when other legal representatives
    are present maintainability................................................................................... 104
Wife living separately from her husband................................................................. 104
Second wife............................................................................................................ 105
Remarriage of widow after death of husband.......................................................... 105
Brother.................................................................................................................... 106
Application of Gurubhai after death of Mohant...................................................... 106
Brother when not entitled........................................................................................ 106
Brothers and sisters when cannot claim compensation............................................ 107
Karta of Hindu joint family..................................................................................... 109
Concubine............................................................................................................... 109
Grandchildren......................................................................................................... 109
Father-in-law........................................................................................................... 109
Grandfather............................................................................................................. 110
Husband.................................................................................................................. 110
Parents.................................................................................................................... 110
Uncle....................................................................................................................... 111
Sons........................................................................................................................ 111
Married daughter..................................................................................................... 111
Adopted son............................................................................................................ 111
Persons incompetent to claim compensation........................................................... 111
Impleadment of parties............................................................................................ 117
Parties in particular.................................................................................................. 126
Jurisdiction.............................................................................................................. 134
        7     Application Form and Pleadings for Compensation                                                      136
Form of an application before a Claims Tribunal.................................................... 136
Amendment of claim petition.................................................................................. 139
Sub-section (3) of s. 166 (since repealed)............................................................... 140
Sub-section (3) prior to its deletion......................................................................... 140
Condonation of delay.............................................................................................. 141
No separate petition for condonation of delay necessary......................................... 141
No affidavit............................................................................................................. 141
        7     Application Form and Pleadings for Compensation—continued
Sufficient cause....................................................................................................... 141
Relevant consideration for condoning the delay...................................................... 146
Sub-section (3) deleted............................................................................................ 147
Deletion of sub-sec. (3)—if retrospective............................................................... 147
Application of the Limitation Act in claims proceedings
    —benefits of ss. 6 and 7 of the Limitation Act.................................................... 149
Counting of commencement of the period of limitation........................................... 150
Claims Tribunal can award compensation against railway...................................... 150
Failure to implead the insurer by the claimant......................................................... 150
Sub-section (4)........................................................................................................ 150
Option regarding claim of compensation in certain cases........................................ 151
Choice of forum...................................................................................................... 151
Statutory option....................................................................................................... 152
Option when to be exercised................................................................................... 152
Section 167—not attracted...................................................................................... 152
Compensation received from Commissioner, Workmen’s
    Compensation...................................................................................................... 153
Option exercised to file claim petition under s. 166 of the Motor
    Vehicles Act........................................................................................................ 153
Claim filed under Motor Vehicles Act to be adjudicated
    under that Act...................................................................................................... 154
The compensation awarded by Comissioner Workmen’s 
    Compensation without any application by the claimant....................................... 154
        8     Award of Claims Tribunal                                                                                        156
Section 168—scope................................................................................................ 156
Award..................................................................................................................... 157
Claim under Motor Vehicles Act not to be restricted in terms of
    Workmen’s Compensation Act 1923.................................................................. 157
Nature of liability under the Fatal Accidents Act and
    Motor Vehicles Act—distinction......................................................................... 157
Burden of proof...................................................................................................... 158
Tribunal to hold enquiry.......................................................................................... 158
Inquiry—theory of reasonable opportunity............................................................. 159
Summary procedure................................................................................................ 159
Inquiry not governed by CPC................................................................................. 159
        9     Practice and Procedure before Claims Tribunal                       ..................................... 160
Procedure to be evolved by Claims Tribunal........................................................... 160
Claim not to be dismissed for mere technicalities.................................................... 161
Dismissal of claim for default................................................................................. 161
Applicability of Code of Civil Procedure................................................................ 161
Applicability of Evidence Act................................................................................. 162
Filing of written statement....................................................................................... 163
Amendment of written statement............................................................................. 163
Specific pleading in claim petition not made—effect............................................... 163
Defences of the insurance company........................................................................ 163
Procedure which may be adopted by the Claims Tribunal....................................... 164
        9     Practice and Procedure before Claims Tribunal—continued
Proceedings initiated under repealed Act................................................................. 165
Ex parte proceeding................................................................................................. 165
Setting aside the ex parte order................................................................................ 165
Restoration of case.................................................................................................. 165
Issues to be properly framed and adjudicated.......................................................... 166
Preliminary issue..................................................................................................... 166
Granting of adjournment......................................................................................... 166
Abatement of claim petition..................................................................................... 167
Appreciation of evidence by the Tribunal................................................................ 167
Documentary evidence............................................................................................ 168
Secondary evidence................................................................................................. 169
Requirement of producing certain documents with claim petition........................... 170
Prior admission in criminal court—effect................................................................ 170
Non-examination of claimant—if fatal.................................................................... 171
Examination of witness on Commission................................................................. 171
Claim petition by indigent person............................................................................ 172
Execution of award................................................................................................. 172
The order to deposit of compensation award by the Tribunal.................................. 172
Procedure to be adopted in case of compensation
    awarded to minors............................................................................................... 173
Costs....................................................................................................................... 175
Costs awarded on setting aside ex parte award....................................................... 175
Compromise............................................................................................................ 175
Compromise signed by the counsel of the parties................................................... 175
Compromise when some of the claimants were minors.......................................... 176
Standard of proof.................................................................................................... 176
Just and reasonable compensation........................................................................... 176
      10     Proof of Claim Proceedings before a Motor
              Accidents Claims Tribunal (Negligence and Liability)                       ........................... 179
Proof of claim—essentials required........................................................................ 179
Application of law of torts...................................................................................... 181
Triple concept of negligence.................................................................................... 181
Negligence—a specific tort..................................................................................... 181
Tort and wrong....................................................................................................... 182
Application of the Evidence Act.............................................................................. 182
Nature of tribunal proceedings—civil proceedings as opposed
    to criminal prosecution—a comparative study..................................................... 183
Liabilities—classification thereof—(A) Direct and Vicarious—
    (B) General and Absolute.................................................................................... 184
Actionable negligence............................................................................................. 185
Negligence in motor accident claims....................................................................... 185
Vicarious liability.................................................................................................... 186
Liability of master for tort committed by his servant............................................... 189
Master and servant relationship............................................................................... 190
During the course of employment........................................................................... 190
      10     Proof of Claim Proceedings before a Motor
              Accidents Claims Tribunal (Negligence and Liability)—continued
Owner’s liability for the act of driver—some illustrative cases............................... 192
Scooter being driven with the knowledge of owner................................................ 192
Carriage of two excess passengers by driver of taxi............................................... 193
Act of driver wholly unauthorised—liability of owner of the vehicle..................... 193
Motor vehicle found in custody of third party when he
    caused accident.................................................................................................... 193
Owner denying that the driver was in employment................................................. 193
Minor driving the vehicle........................................................................................ 193
Illegal transfer of vehicle and liability of the transferor........................................... 194
Employee using vehicle for his own use................................................................. 194
Vehicle taken by hire-purchase agreement.............................................................. 194
Vehicle contracted on hire....................................................................................... 194
Liability of hypothecating bank............................................................................... 195
Vehicle registered in the name of finance company................................................. 195
Driver taking passenger in goods vehicle................................................................ 195
Sovereign immunity not to be claimed.................................................................... 198
Joint tort-feasors and their liability.......................................................................... 205
Joint liability of tort-feasors how arise.................................................................... 206
Joint tort-feasors—joint and several liability........................................................... 206
Joint and several tort-feasors—distinction.............................................................. 207
Liability of insurer................................................................................................ .. 208
Composite negligence of drivers of two or more vehicles....................................... 210
Composite liability—apportionment of compensation............................................. 210
      11     On Negligence       .................................................................................................... ... 212
Introductory—definition of..................................................................................... 212
Degree of care......................................................................................................... 213
Duty of driver at cross-road.................................................................................... 214
Res ipsa loquitur—presumption of negligence and rebuttal.................................... 215
Res ipsa loquitur—meaning.................................................................................... 216
Presumption may be rebutted.................................................................................. 219
Res ipsa loquitur—when does not apply................................................................. 219
Illustrative cases on res ipsa loquitur....................................................................... 220
Illustrative cases of negligence (generally).............................................................. 222
Rash and negligent driving—some illustrative cases............................................... 237
Contributory negligence—composite negligence—
    difference—effects.............................................................................................. 240
Contributory negligence.......................................................................................... 242
Contributory negligence—when arises................................................................... 244
Basis of contributory negligence............................................................................. 246
Contributory negligence and the determination of
    compensation in motor accident case................................................................... 246
Illustrative cases on contributory negligence........................................................... 247
Plea of contributory negligence............................................................................... 251
Cases which do not come under contributory negligence........................................ 252
Contributory negligence and mitigation of damages................................................ 253
      11     On Negligence—continued
Contributory negligence not established.................................................................. 254
Contributory negligence and apportionment
    of compensation.................................................................................................. 256
      12     On Evidence before a Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal                          ........................... ... 259
Introductory—rules of evidence.............................................................................. 259
What can be treated as evidence before Claims Tribunal
    and what not........................................................................................................ 259
Secondary evidence................................................................................................. 260
Public document...................................................................................................... 260
Admission of guilt before criminal court................................................................. 261
Judgment of a criminal court not binding on a Claims Tribunal.............................. 261
Appreciation of evidence......................................................................................... 263
Presumption......................................................................................................... .. 267
Burden of proof...................................................................................................... 267
Witnesses................................................................................................................ 268
Written statement by the owner and insurer of the vehicle...................................... 270
Additional written statement.................................................................................... 271
      13     Defence in Proceedings before
              Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal                .................................................................. ... 273
Defence by the owner (and the driver) of the
    offending vehicle................................................................................................. 273
Pleas of non-liability by the owner of the vehicle.................................................... 274
Defence of the insurer............................................................................................. 282
Right to contest on merit by insurer........................................................................ 283
Permission granted erroneously.............................................................................. 284
Permission under s. 170 before High Court in appeal............................................. 284
Oral permission without reason.............................................................................. 285
Refusal to grant permission proper......................................................................... 285
Plea of the insurer before High Court that the Tribunal
    ought to have permitted it to contest the claim on merits...................................... 285
Statutory defences of the insured............................................................................ 285
Statutory liability of the insurer when arises........................................................... 286
Vehicle driven by a driver not having proper licence.............................................. 287
Carrying passengers exclusively prohibited by
    terms of insurance............................................................................................... 288
No fundamental breach of the policy....................................................................... 288
Plea of bar of limitation........................................................................................... 288
Limited liability of insurer....................................................................................... 288
Amount paid by insurer in excess of its liability..................................................... 289
Policy of insured issued on the date of accident...................................................... 289
Defence available in appeal..................................................................................... 290
      14     Award of a Claims Tribunal—Just Compensation                      ...................................... ... 291
Award of compensation.......................................................................................... 291
Form and nature of award....................................................................................... 291         No prescribed form of award                  292
      14     Award of a Claims Tribunal—Just Compensation—continued
Reliefs in an award.................................................................................................. 293
Award of interest, a discretion of the Tribunal........................................................ 295
Date from which interest payable............................................................................ 296
Rate of interest........................................................................................................ 296
Section 166 of Motor Vehicles Act vis-a-vis Workmen’s
    Compensation Act 1923...................................................................................... 297
No award of interest on future expenditure............................................................. 297
Liability to pay interest............................................................................................ 298
Interest to be apportioned to all the claimants.......................................................... 298
Interest on compensation enhanced by the Appellate Court.................................... 298
Appellate Court can enhance the rate of interest...................................................... 298
Rate of interest enhanced by Supreme Court........................................................... 298
Misrepresentation in pleadings—Criminal liability
    for misrepresentation, false and vexatious claim or defence................................ 299
Subsequent suit for damages for misrepresentation—
    basis of calculation.............................................................................................. 299
Apportionment of compensation—liability of joint tort-feasors—
    proportionment of liability amongst themselves.................................................. 300
Just compensation................................................................................................... 300
Burden of proof...................................................................................................... 305
Salient features of quantification of damages.......................................................... 305
Break up of the method of calculation..................................................................... 313
Multiplier method—more scientific method............................................................ 314
Adopting appropriate multiplier some illustrative cases.......................................... 315
Multiplier according to Second Schedule................................................................ 318
Multiplier for house wife........................................................................................ 318
Multiplier in case of death of child.......................................................................... 319
Multiplier where the deceased was between 15-20 years........................................ 319
Deduction due to lump sum payment and for
    uncertainties of life.............................................................................................. 320
Deduction not allowed when multiplier applied...................................................... 322
Deduction for contributory negligence.................................................................... 322
Deduction towards personal expenses.................................................................... 323
Deduction on ex-gratia payment.............................................................................. 324
Speculative plea of widow remarrying.................................................................... 325
Deduction when not allowed................................................................................... 325
Payment received having no connection with the
    fatal accident........................................................................................................ 325
Amount received from the insurance company....................................................... 326
Gratuity amount...................................................................................................... 326
Social security amount............................................................................................ 327
Family pension........................................................................................................ 327
However, in some decisions a different note was struck......................................... 327
House rent allowance.............................................................................................. 328
Rent received by claimant........................................................................................ 328
Interim compensation.............................................................................................. 328
      14     Award of a Claims Tribunal—Just Compensation—continued
Future prospect of widow remarrying..................................................................... 328
Deduction from the salary received by widow or
    son received on compassionate ground............................................................... 328
Income from agriculture.......................................................................................... 329
Income of the victim................................................................................................ 329
Applicability of Minimum Wages Act to determine
    the income........................................................................................................... 333
Calculation of income on the basis of Second Schedule.......................................... 333
Compensation in death case how to be calculated—
    dependency.......................................................................................................... 334
Compensation under different heads—pecuniary and
    non-pecuniary damages....................................................................................... 336
Personal injury—award of compensation—illustrative cases.................................. 348
Medical expenses.................................................................................................... 350
Award of total compensation in personal injury cases............................................ 350
Compensation for damage to property of third party............................................... 356
General principle for award of damage to property................................................. 357
Composite claim...................................................................................................... 357
Compensation for loss of business due to accident
    of the vehicle....................................................................................................... 357
Damage to property to whom available................................................................... 358
Illustrative cases of damage to property awarded
    by Tribunal.......................................................................................................... 358
Ownership of the damaged vehicle not proved....................................................... 359
Compensation for death of a buffalo....................................................................... 359
Compensation for damage to the car....................................................................... 360
Recipients of compensation to be named in the award............................................ 360
Enforcement of award............................................................................................. 361
Withholding of payment by Tribunal...................................................................... 362
Order of deposit of compensation amount in fixed deposit..................................... 362
Long term investment of compensation................................................................... 362
      15     Quantum                                                                                                                    ... 365
Injury on arms......................................................................................................... 365
Injury on hand......................................................................................................... 366
Injuries on leg and foot........................................................................................... 368
Injury of kidney...................................................................................................... 371
Jaws bone............................................................................................................... 371
Brain injury............................................................................................................. 371
Head injury............................................................................................................. 372
Injured suffering paralysis...................................................................................... 373
Injury on pelvic bone.............................................................................................. 374
Injury on radius and fibula...................................................................................... 374
Fracture of the ribs.................................................................................................. 374
Injuries on scapula and rib...................................................................................... 375
Shoulder injury....................................................................................................... 375
Spinal cord injury.................................................................................................... 375
      15     Quantum—continued
Tibia fibula injury.................................................................................................... 376
Injury to teeth.......................................................................................................... 377
Injury to the wrist.................................................................................................... 377
Claimant sustaining multiple injuries....................................................................... 377
Compensation for permanent partial disability........................................................ 380
Temporary disability............................................................................................... 382
Death of an adult male or female earning person in motor accident......................... 382
Compensation for death of housewife..................................................................... 399
Compensation for death of child in motor accident upto
    10 years of age.................................................................................................... 402
Compensation for death of a child above ten years
    and upto 18 years................................................................................................ 405
Compensation for death by motor accident for boy or girl
    above 18 years having no income........................................................................ 411
      16     Appeal from Award—Letters Patent Appeal—
              Revision—Cross-objection and Writs                 ........................................................... ... 413
Judgment and award............................................................................................ .. 413
Letters Patent Appeal—law prior to amendment of s. 100A,
    CPC by Amending Act 2002.............................................................................. 414
Grounds of interference.......................................................................................... 414
No new points......................................................................................................... 414
Appeal to Supreme Court under Art. 136 of the Constitution................................. 414
Dismissed of appeal for default............................................................................... 414
Appeal against Single Judge against the order of
    Commissioner workmen’s compensation............................................................ 415
Impact of s. 100A, CPC as amended by CPC (Amendmnt) Act
    2002 on maintainability of Letters Patent Appeal................................................ 415
Appealable awards.................................................................................................. 416
Who can prefer an appeal........................................................................................ 417
Joint appeal by the insurer and the insured.............................................................. 418
Appeal as an indigent person (Or. 33 and Or. 44 of CP Code................................ 420
Death of appellant (claimant)................................................................................... 420
Grounds of appeal by an insurer............................................................................. 420
Appeal by owner and insurance company of one of the
    two vehicles involved in the accident................................................................... 424
Bar of s. 173(2) when not attracted......................................................................... 424
Insurer cannot contest the claim for the first time in appeal..................................... 424
First proviso to s. 173(1)........................................................................................ 425
The object behind the deposit.................................................................................. 427
New plea in appeal.................................................................................................. 427
Non-appealing respondent...................................................................................... 429
Computation of period of limitation filing the appeal.............................................. 429
Condonation of delay.............................................................................................. 429
Delay condoned but order not signed by Judge...................................................... 432
Procedure for preferring and disposal of an appeal................................................. 432
Abatement of an appeal........................................................................................... 434
      16     Appeal from Award—Letters Patent Appeal—
              Revision—Cross-objection and Writs—continued
Cross-objection....................................................................................................... 436
Right of respondent to challenge an issue............................................................... 437
Non-filing of appeal and cross-objection................................................................ 437
Interim compensation.............................................................................................. 437
Additional evidence................................................................................................. 438
Provisions of Or. 41, r. 33, CPC............................................................................ 438
Revision.................................................................................................................. 439
Recent view............................................................................................................. 440
Compensation less than Rs. 10,000........................................................................ 440
Petition for writ under Art. 227 of the Constitution of India................................... 441
Writ petition under Art. 226 of the Constitution...................................................... 442
Powers of the appellate authority—rejection of a memo of appeal.......................... 442
Appeal before High Court—nature and extent of jurisdiction................................. 443
Ground of lack of territorial jurisdiction.................................................................. 444
Appeal challenging the quantum of compensation.................................................. 444
Enhancement of compensation in appeal................................................................. 445
Quantum of compensation not properly determined................................................ 445
High Court in appeal cannot make out at a third case.............................................. 445
Court-fees in Memo. of Appeal.............................................................................. 446
      17     Award and its Execution                                                                                               ... 447
Laws on the subject................................................................................................. 447
Execution of award as a decree-holder.................................................................... 448
Insurance company has first to satisfy the award.................................................... 448
Claims Tribunal has powers of civil court—for execution
    of decree under Or. 21, CPC............................................................................... 449
Ex parte award and plea of insurance company....................................................... 450
Production of certified copy of the award not
    necessary for applying for execution................................................................... 450
    Section 82—CP Code applies............................................................................. 450
      18     Claims Tribunal Rules and the Rule-making Power                                                           ... 452
Rule-making power of the State Government......................................................... 452
Purpose of the rule-making power.......................................................................... 452
Appendices
Appendix
        1     Schedule II of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988                   ................................................ ... 457
        2     The Fatal Accident Act, 1855                                                                                         ... 459
        3     The Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                 ........................................................ ... 461
        4     The A.P. Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                                                                             ... 470
        5     The Arunachal Pradesh Motor Accidents
              Claims Tribunal Rules, 1979            ............................................................................ ... 479
        6     The Arunachal Pradesh Motor Accident
              (No Fault Liability) Claims Rules, 1989                                                                         ... 482
        7     The Assam Motor Accident Claims Tribunals Rules, 1960                       ......................... ... 487
        8     The Bihar Motor Vehicles Accidents Claims Tribunal Rules, 1961                        .............. ... 491
        9     The Bihar Motor Vehicles Rules, 1992                ........................................................... ... 498
      10     The Delhi Motor Vehicles Rules, 1993                ........................................................... ... 510
      11     The Goa Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989               ............................................................. ... 516
      12     The Gujarat Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                  ...................................................... ... 524
      13     The Haryana Motor Vehicles Rules,1993                 ....................................................... ... 536
      14     The Himachal Pradesh Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                     ..................................... ... 540
      15     The Jammu & Kashmir Motor Vehicles Rules, 1991                    .................................... ... 545
      16     The Karnataka Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                   .................................................. ... 552
      17     The Kerala Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                                                                           ... 561
      18     The Madhya Pradesh Motor Vehicles Rules, 1994                      ...................................... ... 573
      19     The Maharashtra Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                                                                   ... 581
      20     The Meghalaya Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal Rules, 1981                                            ... 598
      21     The Mizoram Motor Accidents Claims Tribunal Rules, 1988                        ..................... ... 603
      22     The Orissa Motor Vehicles (Accidents
              Claims Tribunals) Rules, 1960               ....................................................................... ... 608
      23     The Pondicherry Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                                                                   ... 618
      24     The Punjab Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                 ........................................................ ... 627
      25     The Rajasthan Motor Vehicles Rules, 1990                   .................................................. ... 632
      26     The Tamil Nadu Motor Vehicles Accidents
              Claims Tribunal Rules, 1989                                                                                         ... 642
      27     The Uttar Pradesh Motor Vehicles Rules, 1998                    ............................................ ... 653
      28     The West Bengal Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989                                                                  ... 659

M.R. Mallick

MA, LLB, Former Judge, Calcutta High Court



Special Deals
Special Deals
Enjoy 7.5% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 1800
Use Code
Enjoy 12% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 2500
Use Code
X
Enjoy 7.5% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 1800
Use Code
View all Deals
Web Administrator LNSEL