Book detail

Wills
Law and Practice
Author: R.K. Bag,  D.P Dey
Edition: 1st
Year of publication: 2018
No. of pages: 441
ISBN: 9788171773367
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 875.00
You pay 787.50
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The work is the combination of all the ingredients systematically arranged. Topics like such as characteristics, classification, construction, execution, validity and proof, revocation and probate are analysed in separate chapters. Wills under Mohamedan Law also received appropriate treatment. Issues like lost will, nuncupative will, holograph will, will of thirty years, suspicious circumstances, probate of a foreign will, conclusiveness of probate, revocation of probate, proof of valid execution, are discussed exhaustively in the light of the decisions of different High Courts, Supreme court and the courts of foreign countries. It is a must for every new library.

• Presumption of will of 30 years
• Proof of Holograph will
• Suspicious circumstances
• Effect of slight discrepancy
• Will under Mahomedan Law

Contents

Preface  ....................................................................................................             [5]
Table of Cases..........................................................................................     [19]
Chapter
       1     Introduction ..............................................................................         1
              Will—meaning of.......................................................................         2
              History of testamentary succession among Hindus...............         4
              How the Hindus imbibed the idea of making wills..................         4
              How the Hindus acquired the right to make wills...................         5
              Ancient forms of will..................................................................         5
              Nature of a will............................................................................         5
              Object of executing a will..........................................................         6
              Necessary ingredients..............................................................         6
              Interpretation of will...................................................................         6
              Incomplete will...........................................................................         7
              Deed of settlement or will..........................................................         8
              Will speaks from the date of death of the testator..................       12
              Codicil   ......................................................................................       16
                    Effect       ..............................................................................       17
                    Probate    ..............................................................................       18
                    Revocation of will................................................................       18
              Execution of a codicil................................................................       18
              Will under Mohammedan law...................................................       18
       2     Characteristics ..........................................................................       20
              Nature of a will............................................................................       21
              Will—criteria for determination.................................................       21
                    Deed of settlement and will—distinction...........................       26
                    Language..............................................................................       27
                    Characteristics.....................................................................       27
                    Artificial rules of construction.............................................       28
                    Repugnant clause................................................................       28
              Will—criteria for determination—continued
                    Absurdity ..............................................................................       28
                    Presumption ........................................................................       28
              Defeasance clause and repugnant clause...............................       32
                    Family settlement and will...................................................       33
              Will may be conditional.............................................................       33
              Nuncupative or oral will.............................................................       33
              Inofficious will............................................................................       35
              Will of thirty years old—presumption......................................       35
       3     Classification  ...........................................................................       37
              Privileged will.............................................................................       37
                 Mode of making and rules for executing,
                 privileged will..........................................................................       38
                    Soldier—meaning of............................................................       38
              Revocation of privileged will or codicil...................................       39
              Holograph will............................................................................       39
              Proof of holograph will.............................................................       39
              Joint will                                                                                                   40
                    When made..........................................................................       40
                    Family settlement.................................................................       41
              Mutual will    ................................................................................       41
                    Mutual will versus Joint will.................................................       43
                    English law...........................................................................       44
              Lost will  .....................................................................................       44
              Presumption ..............................................................................       45
                    Examples of presumption of revocation............................       46
                    Burden of proof....................................................................       46
              Probate of lost will......................................................................       47
                    Proof of lost will by secondary evidence..........................       48
                    Lost will—secondary evidence..........................................       49
              Nuncupative or oral will.............................................................       49
              Foreign will  ..............................................................................       51
       4     Construction .............................................................................       52
              Construction of wills..................................................................       52
              No technical words necessary.................................................       53
              Conditions                                                                                               53
              Rules for the construction of wills............................................       54
              Principles of construction and cases......................................       57
                    Injunction, if can be granted in
                       probate proceedings........................................................       63
              Preference to construction which avoids intestacy...............       64
              Cardinal principles....................................................................       64
              Construction of words...............................................................       64
                    Conflict in the will................................................................       65
                    Layman’s drafting.................................................................       66
                    Vernacular will......................................................................       66
                    Clause of defeasance..........................................................       67
              Writing                                                                                               67
              Signature of testator...................................................................       67
              Presence of witnesses...............................................................       67
              Signature by witnesses..............................................................       68
              Intention of the testator ............................................................       68
                    Language..............................................................................       68
                    Characteristics.....................................................................       69
                    Artificial rules of construction.............................................       69
                    Repugnant clause................................................................       69
                    Absurdity ..............................................................................       70
                    Presumption.........................................................................       70
              Admissibility of evidence..........................................................       71
              Mistake in name or description—effect...................................       72
              How rectified                                                                                            72
              Legacy to a person in a particular character...........................       72
              Omitted words may be supplied...............................................       74
              Changing words and supplying words..................................       75
              Rejection of erroneous particulars...........................................       76
              Part of description may not be rejected
                 as erroneous—when..............................................................       76
              Admissibility of extrinsic evidence...........................................       77
              Extrinsic evidence inadmissible in case of
                 patent ambiguity or deficiency...............................................       77
              Extrinsic evidence.....................................................................       78
                    When not admissible...........................................................       78
              Ambiguity in the will...................................................................       78
              Meaning of clause to be collected from entire will .................       78
              Construction must be on the whole will ..................................       79
                    Purpose of interpretation....................................................       80
                    Intention ..............................................................................       80
                    True mode.............................................................................       81
                    Other factors.........................................................................       81
                    Literal strictness...................................................................       82
              Words may be understood in restricted sense,
                 and when in sense wider than usual....................................       83
              Sense ..........................................................................................       84
              Preference between two possible constructions....................       84
              Two constructions.....................................................................       84
              Avoid repugnancy.....................................................................       85
              Rejection of part.........................................................................       86
              Same words occurring more than once..................................       86
                    Limitations............................................................................       87
              Intention of the testator.............................................................       87
                    Effect of the dispositions....................................................       89
                    Parts irreconcilable..............................................................       90
                    Criteria for ascertaining genuineness...............................       90
                    Burden of proof of undue influence...................................       90
              Inconsistent clauses..................................................................       90
                    Duty of the court...................................................................       92
                    Restrictions..........................................................................       92
                    Conditions............................................................................       92
              Bequest void for uncertainty.....................................................       92
                    Purpose ................................................................................       93
                    Endowment...........................................................................       94
                    Void—when..........................................................................       95
              Legatee’s right of selection.......................................................       96
                    Applicability..........................................................................       96
                    Trust versus power..............................................................       97
              Words describing subject referred to property
                 answering description at testator’s death............................       97
              Description of specific property...............................................       98
              Appointment ..............................................................................       99
              Gift to objects.............................................................................     100
              Bequest without words of limitation.........................................     100
              Whole interest............................................................................     100
                    Malik—meaning...................................................................     101
              Bequest for life with general power of appointment...............     103
              Bequest to females.....................................................................     103
              Bequest—if absolute..................................................................     107
              Words of limitation....................................................................     108
              What are not words of limitation..............................................     109
              Bequest in alternative................................................................     112
              Alternative bequest ....................................................................     112
              Successive bequests and alternative bequests.......................     112
              Bequest to a person with a class of persons..........................     113
              Bequest to a class......................................................................     113
              Construction of terms................................................................     115
              Santhathi—meaning..................................................................     116
              Words expressing relationship denote only
                 legitimate relatives..................................................................     116
                 Two bequests to same person—rules of construction...........................     117
                    Explanation..........................................................................     117
              Residuary legatee......................................................................     117
              Property to which residuary legatee is entitled.......................     118
                    Property meaning................................................................     119
                    Separate account.................................................................     120
              Undisposed of residue..............................................................     120
              Share of residue and specific bequest.....................................     120
              Vesting of an estate...................................................................     121
              Scope..........................................................................................     121
              Vested—when............................................................................     122
              Lapse of legacies.......................................................................     122
                    When lapse..........................................................................     123
                    Unless it appears by the will—meaning............................     124
              Legacy does not lapse if one of two joint
                 legatees die before testator....................................................     124
              Scope..........................................................................................     124
                    Tenancy is not created—when...........................................     125
                    Death of legatee before testator..........................................     125
              Joint tenancy and tenancy-in-common..................................     125
                    English rule..........................................................................     126
                    Intention ........................................................................ 127
                    Mode of creation..................................................................     128
              Instances of joint tenancy.........................................................     129
              Limitation of s. 107 of the Indian Succession Act...................     129
              Lapsed share goes as undisposed of.....................................     130
              Bequest to testator’s child or lineal descendant
                 does not lapse on his death in testator’s lifetime................     130
                    Object of s. 109 of the Indian Succession Act...................     131
              Section 109 of the Indian Succession Act
                 based on the English Wills Act.............................................     131
              Joint will                                                                                           131
              Scope and construction of s. 109 of the
                 Indian Succession Act............................................................     131
              Gifts to a class............................................................................     132
              Contrary intention......................................................................     132
              Lineal descendant.....................................................................     133
              Survivorship in case of bequest to described class...............     133
              Exception                                                                                         133
              Principle of s. 111 of the Indian Succession Act....................     133
                    Child in womb......................................................................     135
              Exception to s. 111 of the Indian Succession Act..................     135
                    Exceptions not applicable—when.....................................     136
                    Postponement of vesting....................................................     136
       5     Execution...................................................................................             138
              Testamentary capacity...............................................................     138
                    Lucid moment—meaning....................................................     139
                    Presumption of mental capacity.........................................     139
              Formalities    ..............................................................................     139
              Genuineness of a will................................................................     140
              Signature of the testator............................................................     140
                    Incomplete signature...........................................................     141
                    Abnormality of signature.....................................................     142
              Acknowledgment of signature..................................................     142
                    Test                                                                                             143
                    Requirement.........................................................................     143
                    English law...........................................................................     143
                    Express or implied...............................................................     144
                    Circumstantial evidence......................................................     144
                    Presumption of due execution............................................     145
                    Validity of will.......................................................................     145
                    Transfer of property by will.................................................     146
                    When will not invalid...........................................................     146
              Mark  ...........................................................................................     147
                    Thumb impression...............................................................     148
                     Execution by putting of mark—hand guided by another........................     148
              Proof of valid execution............................................................     149
              Valid execution of will—not proved.........................................     151
              Proof of execution......................................................................     155
              Execution by illiterate lady........................................................     155
                    English Law and Indian Law—comparison......................     156
              Place of signature......................................................................     157
              Attestation     ..............................................................................     158
              Attesting witness........................................................................     161
                    Who can be attesting witness.............................................     162
                    Requirements.......................................................................     164
                    Witnesses shall see the testator sign.................................... 164
                    Attestation—implication......................................................     164
                    Mode of proof.......................................................................     165
              Scribe as an attestor..................................................................     165
              Presumption of 30 years old document...................................     167
              Attestation by Registrar.............................................................     167
                    Animus attestandi.................................................................     168
                    Signature of registering officer as attestation...................     170
              Registration  ..............................................................................     171
                    Effect of registration.............................................................     171
              “Witnesses shall sign”..............................................................     174
                    Initials as attestation............................................................     174
                      Signing of one witness on behalf of
                    another witness....................................................................     175
                    Signing by attesting witness...............................................     175
              “Presence of the testator—meaning of”...................................     175
              Presence of the witnesses at the same time............................     176
              Non-examination of doctor.......................................................     177
              No form of attestation necessary..............................................     177
                    Active participation..............................................................     177
              Onus of proof.............................................................................     177
                    Chance witness....................................................................     178
              Holograph will............................................................................     178
              Suspicious circumstances........................................................     178
              Will not suffering from suspicious circumstances .................     180
              Propounder taking a prominent part.......................................     182
              Validity of will.............................................................................     183
              Proof of genuineness of will.....................................................     184
              Miscellaneous............................................................................     187
                    Factors    ..............................................................................     187
              Incorporation.............................................................................     189
       6     Validity and Proof  ....................................................................     190
              Formalities of making a will......................................................     190
              Sound disposing mind.............................................................     190
              Attestation     ..............................................................................     191
              Who can be attesting witnesses...............................................     194
              Attestation by Registrar.............................................................     197
                    Requirements.......................................................................     199
                    ‘Witnesses shall see the testator sign’...............................     200
              Witnesses need not be present at the same time...................     200
                    Attestation—implication......................................................     201
              When attesting witness will sign..............................................     201
              Witness shall sign in the presence of the testator.................     201
              Testamentary capacity...............................................................     202
              Slight discrepancy.....................................................................     209
              Validity of will.............................................................................     209
              Registration  ..............................................................................     212
                    Effect of registration.............................................................     217
              Signature of the witnesses........................................................     219
                    Initials as attestation............................................................     220
                    Signature on behalf of another witness.............................     220
              Proof of genuineness................................................................     221
              Proof of execution......................................................................     224
              Proof of valid execution............................................................     225
              Valid execution not proved.......................................................     228
              Suspicious circumstances........................................................     231
              Effect of invalidity.......................................................................     232
              Proof of essential facts..............................................................     233
              Burden of proof..........................................................................     234
              Burden of proof—when shifted................................................     240
       7     Revocation                                                                                              242
              Revocation—meaning of..........................................................     242
              Revocability of a will..................................................................     242
              Revocation of unprivileged will or codicil..............................     244
              Revocation by parol..................................................................     244
                    Applicability..........................................................................     244
                    To whom does not apply....................................................     244
              Revocation of any part of a will................................................     245
              Revocation by another will.......................................................     245
                    Inconsistent will...................................................................     246
                    My last will—implication......................................................     247
                    Burden of proof....................................................................     247
              Presumption of revocation........................................................     248
              Dependent relative revocation.................................................     248
              What is not revocation..............................................................     249
              Revocation by some writing.....................................................     250
              Codicil ........................................................................................     251
              Tearing of a will—effect of.........................................................     251
              Destroying otherwise................................................................     252
              Lost will  .....................................................................................     253
                    Presumption.........................................................................     253
                    When presumption of revocation does not arise.............     254
                    Burden of proof....................................................................     254
              Intention of revoking.................................................................     255
              Suo motu revocation..................................................................     255
              Limitation      ..............................................................................     255
              Who can apply for revocation..................................................     256
                    Right of presumptive reversioner.......................................     258
                    Right of judgment-debtor....................................................     259
                    Right of creditor...................................................................     259
                    Interest by mortgage............................................................     260
                    Right of assignor.................................................................     260
                    Widow of testator.................................................................     260
                    Minor                                                                                          260
                    Surety                                                                                         262
                    Revocation at the behest of third party..............................     262
              Defective proceedings..............................................................     262
              Absence of citation....................................................................     263
                    Effect of omission................................................................     265
              Omission to file inventory and account..................................     266
                    Delay ....................................................................................     267
              Onus to prove............................................................................     267
              Method of approach..................................................................     267
                    Limitation..............................................................................     268
                    Representative capacity......................................................     268
              Payment to and by executor......................................................     268
              Revocation—effect of................................................................     268
              Revival of revoked will..............................................................     269
       8     Probate ......................................................................................     270
              Probate—meaning of.................................................................     270
              Granting of probate...................................................................     271
              To whom probate may be granted............................................     272
              Probate to appointed executor.................................................     272
                    Applicability..........................................................................     273
              Homicide ....................................................................................     274
              Residuary legatee......................................................................     274
              Court of Wards...........................................................................     274
              Refusal of grant of probate applied by executor—
                 criteria if any............................................................................     274
                    Duty of court.........................................................................     275
              Considerations for grant of probate........................................     276
              Appointment express or implied..............................................     277
              Lost will—probate of..................................................................     281
              No limitation ..............................................................................     281
                    Addition of parties as defendant........................................     283
              Substitution   ..............................................................................     284
              Limitation....................................................................................     284
              Probate to minor.........................................................................     285
              Persons to whom probate cannot be granted.........................     285
              Changes .....................................................................................     285
              Probate proceedings—proper mode of disposition..............     286
                 Executor’s refusal to accept office—remedy and effect............................     286
              Registered Society—if entitled to probate or
                 letters of administration..........................................................     286
              Effect of probate.........................................................................     288
                    Date of vesting.....................................................................     288
                    Parol evidence.....................................................................     289
              Absence of probate—effect.......................................................     290
              Foreign will—grant of probate..................................................     292
              Procedure                                                                                        294
              Safe custody ..............................................................................     295
              Probate Court and Civil Court...................................................     295
              Renunciation..............................................................................             295
                    How made.............................................................................     296
                    When made..........................................................................     296
              Withdrawal of renunciation.......................................................     297
                    Fresh petition.......................................................................     298
              Renunciation by administrator.................................................     298
              Nature of renunciation...............................................................     298
              Grant of administration to universal or
                 residuary legatees...................................................................     299
                    Will—meaning of.................................................................     299
                    Death of executor.................................................................     300
                    Universal legatee.................................................................     300
                    Residuary legatee................................................................     301
                    Interference by High Court..................................................     301
              Death of sole executor and legatee pending
                 probate application—proper course for heirs.....................     301
                    Representative—meaning...................................................     303
              When citer takes out probate....................................................     303
                    Object                                                                                         303
                    Issuance of citation..............................................................     304
                    Any person—meaning........................................................     304
                    Role of courts.......................................................................     304
              Compromise ..............................................................................     304
                    Agreement.............................................................................     305
                    Effect of compromise decree..............................................     305
                    Consent of the parties.........................................................     305
                    Terms of compromise..........................................................     306
              Limitation                                                                                         306
              Arbitration   ................................................................................     307
              Appeal                                                                                                      308
              Conclusiveness of probate.......................................................     308
              Original will  ..............................................................................     310
              Duly executed.............................................................................     310
              Amount of assets........................................................................     312
              Jurisdiction  ..............................................................................     313
              Draft will—non-production.......................................................     315
              Absence of attesting witness....................................................     315
              Evidence of execution of will....................................................     315
              Probate granted on mere consent............................................     321
              Probability for a matter for consideration................................     322
              Locus standi of objector............................................................     322
              Citation  ......................................................................................     322
              Absence of citation....................................................................     326
                    Effect of omission................................................................     328
              Citation upon minors.................................................................     329
              Person claiming to have interest..............................................     332
              Publication of citation................................................................     339
              Caveat ........................................................................................     340
                    Nature of right.......................................................................     341
              Object of caveat..........................................................................     341
              Grant obtained fraudulently......................................................     341
                    When grant can be invoked...............................................     343
              Probate caeterorum—practice...................................................     343
              Review of grant of probate........................................................     344
              Expenses for probate................................................................     344
              Executorship expenses.............................................................     345
              Grounds upon which probate can be impeached..................     345
              Rectification of errors................................................................     345
              Probate of a lost will...................................................................     346
              Right of a widow........................................................................     347
              Revocation of probate...............................................................     349
                    Right of presumptive reversioner.......................................     352
                    Right of judgment-debtor....................................................     352
                    Right of creditor...................................................................     352
                    Interest by mortgage............................................................     353
                    Right of assignor.................................................................     353
                    Widow of testator.................................................................     354
                    Person competent to apply for revocation........................     354
                    Surety                                                                                         355
                    Revocation at the behest of third party..............................     355
       9     Will under Mahomedan Law  ..................................................     356
              Capacity to make will.................................................................     358
                    Sanity                                                                                         359
                    Majority   ..............................................................................     359
              Requisites of a valid will............................................................     359
              Form of will   ..............................................................................     360
              Revocation of will......................................................................     361
              Legacy to murderer....................................................................     361
              Probate  ......................................................................................     362
Appendix
Model Forms
       1     Will in favour of sons................................................................     365
       2     Will bequeathing properties among
                 sons and daughter.................................................................     367
       3     Mahomedan Will........................................................................     368
       4     Codicil.........................................................................................             369
       5     Revocation of a Will..................................................................     370
       6     Will bequeathing all properties to one person.......................     371
       7     Will in favour of wife for life and
                 thereafter of children..............................................................     371
       8     Will bequeathing in favour of third
                 persons depriving sons........................................................     372
Index                                                                        373

R.K. Bag

MA, LLB, WBHJS, District Judge, Malda (West Bengal), Formerly Assistant Director (Law), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad

D.P Dey

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