Book detail

A.M. Bhattacharjee Matrimonial Laws and the Constitution
Author: Justice Ruma Pal
Edition: 2nd
Year of publication: 2017
No. of pages: 352
ISBN: 9788171773152
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 850.00
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Since the last edition of this book in 1996, there has been an increasing awareness and implementation of the concept of individual equality politically, socially and judicially. This has led to major statutory changes in personal laws particularly those relating to marriage. Most of these changes have been presaged by judicial decisions particularly of the High Courts. Enactments such as the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 and the Indian Divorce (Amendment) Act 2001, are illustrative of this trend and have been dealt with extensively in the present edition. Several landmark decisions of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts [such as the decision in Danial Latifi v Union of India (2001)7 SCC 740 which reaffirmed parity in maintenance available to divorced women irrespective of religion and R.R. George Christopher, re (2009)8 MLJ 309 holding that although adoption has not been recognised in India among Christians, this would not stand in the way of the right of a Christian couple to adopt a child under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000] have been considered and commented on.
The instant edition offers a different perspective to the controversial question of the Uniform Civil Code relating to marriages and also demonstrates that many of the existing statutory provisions relating to personal laws are unconstitutional as being gender unjust. New sections have been introduced including those dealing with talak, honour killings, fatwas and secular laws.
This work which is based on the Sir Asutosh Lectures of the Calcutta University, is bound to inspire a rethinking of traditional approaches to personal laws and provides suggestions for future changes in personal laws which are at present the subject matter of serious disagreements and debate.

Voidability of child marriage
Conversion of one of the spouses
Punishment for honour killing
Maintenance to divorced Muslim wife
Uniform Civil Code

Chapter
     1    Introduction..............................................................................
                  1.1   Uniform Civil Code—Article 44,
                         Constitution of India                                                     
                  1.2   Personal Laws                                                                 
                  1.3   Personal Law—definition                                            
                  1.4   Uniform Matrimonial Law—imperative necessity 
                  1.5   Article 44—non-implementation a grave failure    
                  1.6   Shah Bano Begum—aftermath                                     
                  1.7   Danial Latifi                                                                    
                  1.8   Uniform Civil Code—Sarla Mudgal
                         v Union of India                                                             
                  1.9   Present position                                                             
                1.10   Different sets of Matrimonial Laws—
                         constitutionality                                                             
     2    Hindu Law of Marriage........................................................
                  2.1   Introduction                                                                    
                  2.2   Conditions for Hindu marriage—age                       
                  2.3   Child marriage under Hindu Marriage Act
                         —whether void                                                              
                  2.4   Guardianship in marriage                                            
                  2.5   Option of puberty—section 13(2)(iv)                         
                  2.6   The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006            
                  2.7   Conditions for Hindu marriage—monogamy         
                  2.8   Restitution of conjugal rights
                         —constitutionality                                                         
                  2.9   Grounds of divorce and judicial
                         separation—constitutionality                                      
                            2.9.1  Conversion                                                         
                            2.9.2  Rape, sodomy or bestiality                              
                2.10   Limitation for annulment—constitutionality          
                2.11   Fair Trial Rule—one year bar                                      
                2.12   Statements in pleadings—section 20(2),
                         Hindu Marriage Act                                                      
                2.13   Laws ancillary to matrimony—constitutionality    
                          2.13.1  Succession                                                           
                          2.13.2  Guardianship                                                      
     3    Muslim Law of Marriage......................................................
                  3.1   General—amenability to the Constitution               
                  3.2   Narasu Appa Mali—ratio                                             
                  3.3   Muslim Law—amenability to Constitution
                         —Article 225                                                                   
                  3.4   Muslim Law—State action                                           
                  3.5   Articles 13 and 25                                                           
                  3.6   Views of some Jurists                                                    
                  3.7   Polygamy for males and monogamy
                         for females                                                                      
                  3.8   Law not violative of equality—
                         Narasu Appa Mali—Dwarka Bai                                                  
                            3.8.1  Article 15(1) of the Constitution                     
                  3.9   Meaning of “only” in Article 15(1)—Privy
                         Council, Supreme Court and other decisions           
                3.10   Conclusion                                                                      
                3.11   Inter-Religious marriage                                              
Muslim Law of Divo
                3.12   General                                                                            
                          3.12.1  Talak                                                                    
                3.13   Talak and Article 15—whether discriminatory
                         on the ground of sex                                                      
                3.14   Talak and Article 15—whether discriminatory
                         on the ground of religion                                             
                3.15   Talak and Articles 14, 15, 21 and 51A                         
                          3.15.1  Ahmedabad Women Action Group’s case    
                          3.15.2  Khula or Mubaraat                                            
                3.16   Ila and Zihar                                                                   
                3.17   Lian                                                                                   
                3.18   Dissolution by court                                                      
                3.19   Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939
                         —if exhaustive                                                                
                3.20   Right of divorcee to marry former spouse               
                3.21   Divorced wife’s right to maintenance                        
                          3.21.1 Right under Personal Laws                              
                          3.21.2  Right under Chapter IX, Code of
                                      Criminal Procedure 1973                                 
                          3.21.3  Muslim Women (Protection of Rights
                                      on Divorce) Act 1986                                         
                3.22   Conversion—effect on marriage classical
                         Muslim Law                                                                    
                3.23   Reasons for non-application of the classical
                         Muslim Law as to conversion to Islam                      
                3.24   Classical Muslim Law as to apostasy
                         from Islam accepted—propriety                                 
                3.25   Impact of Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850        
                3.26   Impact of Article 15—discrimination
                         on the ground of sex                                                      
                3.27   Impact of the Constitution—Articles 14 and 15       
                3.28   Impact of the Constitution—Articles 14 and 21       
                3.29   Sarla Mudgal—a critique                                              
      4    Christian Law of Marriage .................................................
                  4.1   Introduction                                                                    
                  4.2   The Indian Divorce (Amendment) Act 2001              
                  4.3   Conversion—if ground for dissolution
                         of marriage                                                                     
                  4.4   Converts’ Marriage Dissolution
                         Act 1866—constitutionality                                          
                  4.5   The Indian Christian Marriage Act 1872                              
                  4.6   Rape, sodomy and bestiality—section 10,
                         Divorce Act 1869                                                            
                  4.7   Dissolution of marriage by mutual consent
                         —section 10A                                                                  
                  4.8   Grounds for nullity of marriage
                         —section 19, Divorce Act 1869                                     
                  4.9   Decrees for divorce and nullity
                         —sections 16 and 17                                                       
                4.10   Sections 16 and 17, Divorce Act and s. 19,
                         Family Courts Act                                                         
                4.11   Legitimacy of children of void/voidable
                         marriage—section 21                                                    
                4.12   Judicial separation—section 22                                   
                4.13   Judicial separation—husband not entitled
                         to inherit wife’s property—wife not disentitled      
                4.14   Restitution of conjugal rights                                      
                4.15   Alimony pendente lite—section 36                            
                4.16   Proceedings in camera—section 53                            
      5    Parsi Law of Marriage ...................................................
                  5.1   Earliest Indian Marriage Law Code                           
                  5.2   Conditions for valid marriage
                         —age—section 3(1)(c)                                                    
                  5.3   Conditions for valid marriage—monogamy
                         —sections 4, 5 and 52(2)                                                
                  5.4   Monogamy—punishment for bigamy
                         —section 5— necessity                                                  
                  5.5   Grounds for divorce—unnatural offence
                         —section 32(d)                                                                
                  5.6   Grounds for divorce—conversion
                         —section 32(j)                                                                 
                  5.7   Restitution of conjugal rights—section 36
                         —constitutionality                                                         
                  5.8   Right and grounds of appeal—section 47                  
                  5.9   Legitimacy of children of void/invalid
                         marriage—sections 3(2) and 4                                     
     6    Special Marriage Act 1954.................................................
                  6.1   Applicability irrespective of religion                        
                  6.2   Mental capacity—section 4(b)                                      
                  6.3   Conditions for valid marriage—age
                         —sections 4(c) and 24(1)(i)                                            
                  6.4   Succession to property of parties married
                         under this Act—section 21                                            
                  6.5   Void marriage—impotence                                         
     7    Uniform Matrimonial Code.................................................
                  7.1   Uniform Civil Code and unity and integrity
                         of the Nation                                                                   
                  7.2   The first question                                                           
                            7.2.1  Articles 15 and 25—inter-relationship           
                            7.2.2  Articles 14 and 15                                               
                  7.3   The second question                                                      
                  7.4   Discriminations in various matrimonial laws         
                  7.5   Secular Laws                                                                   
                  7.6   Indirect laws                                                                   
                  7.7   Judicial interpretation and activism                           
                  7.8   Khap Panchayats and Fatwas                                       
                            7.8.1  Khap Panchayats                                                
                            7.8.2  Fatwas                                                                  
                  7.9   International Conventions                                           
                7.10   Conclusions                                                                    
Appendices
Appendix                                                                                                             
       1     The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955                                                   
       2     The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat)
              Application Act, 1937                                                                  
       3     The Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939                       
       4     The Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872                                  
       5     The Divorce Act, 1869                                                                
       6     The Converts’ Marriage Dissolution Act, 1866                         
       7     The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936                               
       8     The Special Marriage Act, 1954                                                          
       9     Relevant Extracts from the Constitution of India                     
     10     The Caste Disabilities Removal Act, 1850                                
     11     The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights
                on Divorce) Act, 1986           

Justice Ruma Pal

Former Judge, Supreme Court of India

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