Book detail

Goyle’s A Commentary on the Transfer of Property Act
Goyle’s A Commentary on the Transfer of Property Act
Author: Sukumar Ray
Edition: 3rd Edition
Year of publication: 2020
No. of pages: 1020
ISBN: 9788171773602
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1990.00
You pay 1830.80
Related interest

This outstanding work appears in its third edition. In this edition, the topics that frequently appear before a busy lawyer, i.e. applicability of the doctrine of lis pendens, part-performance, rule against perpetuity, vested interest, transfer by co-owner, redemption of mortgage, mortgagee’s right to foreclosure or sale, determination of lease, effect of holding over, mode of creation of gift, have been analysed in the light of pronouncements of the Apex Court and different High Courts. Many critical issues, such as transfer of property in favour of unborn child and universal donee are discussed at length. The work is indispensable for busy lawyers, law-makers and other members of the legal fraternity.

• Transfer in favour of unborn child
•  Injunction against stranger purchaser
•  Position of a de facto guardian
•  Rights and liabilities of a leasee
•  Applicability of the doctrine of lis pendens
•  Mortgagee’s right to foreclosure or sale

Preface to the Third Edition....................................................................................................... [5]
Preface to the First Edition........................................................................................................ [7]
Table of Cases......................................................................................................................... [17]
 
The Transfer of Property Act 1882
            Preamble.......................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter I
Preliminary
Section
       1   Short title, commencement and extent.............................................................................. 5
       2   Repeal of Acts—saving of certain enactments, incidents, rights, liabilities, etc................. 6
       3   Interpretation clause......................................................................................................... 9
       4   Enactments relating to contracts to be taken as part of Contract Act and
            supplemental to the Registration Act.............................................................................. 37
Chapter II
Of Transfers of Property by Act of Parties
(A) Transfer of property, whether movable or immovable
       5   “Transfer of property” defined...................................................................................... 42
       6   What may be transferred................................................................................................ 52
       7   Persons competent to transfer........................................................................................ 77
       8   Operation of transfer...................................................................................................... 82
       9   Oral transfer................................................................................................................... 96
     10   Condition restraining alienation...................................................................................... 98
     11   Restriction repugnant to interest created....................................................................... 108
     12   Condition making interest determinable on insolvency
            or attempted alienation................................................................................................. 113
     13   Transfer for benefit of unborn person......................................................................... 116
     14   Rule against perpetuity................................................................................................. 118
     15   Transfer to class, some of whom come under sections 13 and 14............................... 122
     16   Transfer to take effect on failure of prior interest......................................................... 124
     17   Direction for accumulation........................................................................................... 126
     18   Transfer in perpetuity for benefit of public.................................................................. 129
     19   Vested interest............................................................................................................. 165
     20   When unborn person acquires vested interest on transfer for his benefit..................... 170
     21   Contingent interest....................................................................................................... 170
     22   Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age........................................... 173
     23   Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event.................................... 174
     24   Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period not specified................ 175
     25   Conditional transfer..................................................................................................... 176
     26   Fulfilment of condition precedent................................................................................ 178
     27   Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to
            another on failure of prior disposition......................................................................... 180
     28   Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not
            happening of specified event........................................................................................ 182
     29   Fulfilment of condition subsequent.............................................................................. 184
     30   Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition............................... 185
     31   Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case
            specified uncertain event happens or does not happen................................................. 188
     32   Such condition must not be invalid.............................................................................. 192
     33   Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time
            being specified for performance................................................................................... 193
     34   Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified................................ 194
Election
     35   Election when necessary.............................................................................................. 195
Apportionment
     36   Apportionment of periodical payments on determination
            of interest of person entitled........................................................................................ 201
     37   Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance................................................... 205
(B) Transfer of immovable property
     38   Transfer by person authorised only under certain
            circumstances to transfer............................................................................................. 208
     39   Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance................................................ 214
     40   Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land
            Or of obligation annexed to ownership but not amounting
            to interest or easement................................................................................................. 220
     41   Transfer by ostensible owner....................................................................................... 226
     42   Transfer by person having authority to revoke former transfer.................................... 246
     43   Transfer by unauthorised person who subsequently
            acquires interest in property transferred....................................................................... 246
     44   Transfer by one co-owner............................................................................................ 257
     45   Joint transfer for consideration.................................................................................... 271
     46   Transfer for consideration by persons having distinct interests................................... 274
     47   Transfer by co-owners of share in common property.................................................. 275
     48   Priority of rights created by transfer............................................................................. 276
     49   Transferee’s right under policy.................................................................................... 280
     50   Rent bona fide paid to holder under defective title....................................................... 281
     51   Improvements made by bona fide holders under defective titles.................................. 283
     52   Transfer of property pending suit relating thereto........................................................ 292
     53   Fraudulent transfer....................................................................................................... 316
  53A   Part performance.......................................................................................................... 328
Chapter III
Of Sales of Immovable Property
     54   “Sale” defined.............................................................................................................. 348
     55   Rights and liabilities of buyer and seller....................................................................... 361
     56   Marshalling by subsequent purchaser.......................................................................... 372
Discharge of encumbrances on sale
     57   Provision by court for encumbrances and sale freed therefrom................................... 375
Chapter IV
Of Mortgages of Immovable Property and Charges
     58   “Mortgage”, “mortgagor”, “mortgagee”, “mortgage-money” and
            “mortgage-deed” defined.............................................................................................. 377
     59   Mortgage when to be by assurance............................................................................... 397
  59A   References to mortgagors and mortgagees to include persons deriving
            title from them............................................................................................................. 407
Rights and liabilities of mortgagor
     60   Right of mortgagor to redeem....................................................................................... 408
  60A   Obligation to transfer to third party instead of re-transference
            to mortgagor................................................................................................................. 423
  60B   Right to inspection and production of documents........................................................ 424
     61   Right to redeem separately or simultaneously.............................................................. 424
     62   Right of usufructuary mortgagor to recover possession............................................... 427
     63   Accession to mortgaged property................................................................................. 430
            Accession acquired in virtue of transferred ownership................................................ 430
  63A   Improvements to mortgaged property.......................................................................... 433
     64   Renewal of mortgaged lease......................................................................................... 437
     65   Implied contracts by mortgagor.................................................................................... 437
  65A   Mortgagor’s power to lease.......................................................................................... 439
     66   Waste by mortgagor in possession............................................................................... 443
Rights and liabilities of mortgagee
     67   Right to foreclosure or sale.......................................................................................... 445
  67A   Mortgagee when bound to bring one suit on several mortgages.................................... 452
     68   Right to sue for mortgage-money................................................................................. 454
     69   Power of sale when valid............................................................................................. 465
  69A   Appointment of receiver.............................................................................................. 473
     70   Accession to mortgaged property................................................................................. 478
     71   Renewal of mortgaged lease......................................................................................... 480
     72   Rights of mortgagee in possession............................................................................... 481
     73   Right to proceeds of revenue sale or compensation on acquisition............................... 486
     74   Rights of subsequent mortgagee to pay off prior mortgagee......................................... 489
     75   Rights of mesne mortgagee against prior and subsequent mortgagees........................... 489
     76   Liabilities of mortgagee in possession.......................................................................... 489
     77   Receipts in lieu of interest............................................................................................ 502
Priority
     78   Postponement of prior mortgagee................................................................................. 505
     79   Mortgage to secure uncertain amount when maximum is expressed............................. 508
     80   Tacking abolished........................................................................................................ 510
Marshalling and contribution
     81   Marshalling securities.................................................................................................. 510
     82   Contribution to mortgage debt...................................................................................... 513
Deposit in court
     83   Power to deposit in Court money due on mortgage...................................................... 520
            Right to money deposited by mortgaged....................................................................... 520
     84   Cessation of interest..................................................................................................... 525
Suits for foreclosure, sale or redemption
     85   Parties to suits for foreclosure, sale and redemption ................................................... 528
Forclosure and sale
86 to 90 [Repealed].................................................................................................................. 528
Redemption
     91   Persons who may sue for redemption.......................................................................... 528
     92   Subrogation.................................................................................................................. 533
     93   Prohibition of tacking................................................................................................... 544
     94   Rights of mesne mortgagee........................................................................................... 545
     95   Right of redeeming co-mortgagor to expenses.............................................................. 546
     96   Mortgage by deposit of title-deeds............................................................................... 548
     97   Application of proceeds............................................................................................... 548
Anomalous mortgages
     98   Rights and liabilities of parties to anomalous mortgages............................................... 548
Attachment of mortgaged property
     99   Attachment of mortgaged property............................................................................... 550
Charges
   100   Charges........................................................................................................................ 550
   101   No merger in case of subsequent encumbrance............................................................ 558
Notice and tender
   102   Service or tender on or to agent.................................................................................... 560
   103   Notice, etc., to or by person incompetent to contract.................................................... 561
   104   Power to make rules..................................................................................................... 563
Chapter V
Of Leases of Immovable Property
   105   Lease defined............................................................................................................... 564
            Lessor, lessee, premium and rent defined.................................................................... 564
   106   Duration of certain leases in absence of written
            contract or local usage.................................................................................................. 598
   107   Leases how made......................................................................................................... 624
   108   Rights and liabilities of lessor and lessee..................................................................... 631
   109   Rights of lessor’s transferee......................................................................................... 666
   110   Exclusion of day on which term commences............................................................... 672
   111   Determination of lease................................................................................................. 675
   112   Waiver of forfeiture..................................................................................................... 704
   113   Waiver of notice to quit................................................................................................ 708
   114   Relief against  forfeiture for non-payment of rent........................................................ 710
114A   Relief against forfeiture in certain other cases.............................................................. 713
   115   Effect of surrender and forfeiture on under-leases....................................................... 716
   116   Effect of holding over.................................................................................................. 718
   117   Exemption of leases for agricultural purposes............................................................. 727
Chapter VI
Of Exchanges
   118   “Exchange” defined..................................................................................................... 730
   119   Right of party deprived of thing received in exchange.................................................. 734
   120   Rights and liabilities of parties..................................................................................... 736
   121   Exchange of money..................................................................................................... 737
Chapter VII
Of Gifts
   122   “Gift” defined.............................................................................................................. 738
            Acceptance when to be made....................................................................................... 738
   123   Transfer how effected.................................................................................................. 750
   124   Gift of existing and future property.............................................................................. 758
   125   Gift to several of whom one does not accept................................................................ 759
   126   When gift may be suspended or revoked..................................................................... 759
   127   Onerous gifts............................................................................................................... 767
            Onerous gift to disqualified person.......................................................................... ... 767
   128   Universal donee........................................................................................................... 768
   129   Saving of donations mortis causa and Muhammadan Law........................................... 770
Chapter VIII
Of Transfers of Actionable Claims
   130   Transfer of actionable claim......................................................................................... 775
130A   Transfer of policy of marine insurance........................................................................ 789
   131   Notice to be in writing, signed...................................................................................... 789
   132   Liability of transferee of actionable claim.................................................................... 790
   133   Warranty of solvency of debtor................................................................................... 792
   134   Mortgaged debt............................................................................................................ 793
   135   Assignment of rights under policy of insurance against fire......................................... 794
135A   Assignment of rights under policy of marine insurance............................................... 794
   136   Incapacity of officers connected with Courts of Justice................................................ 794
   137   Saving of negotiable instruments, etc........................................................................... 795
            The Schedule............................................................................................................... 798
The Indian Easements Act 1882
            Preamble...................................................................................................................... 799
Preliminary
       1   Short title..................................................................................................................... 799
            Local extent................................................................................................................. 799
            Commencement........................................................................................................... 799
       2   Savings........................................................................................................................ 799
       3   Construction of certain references to Act XV of
            1877 and Act IX of 1871............................................................................................. 799
Chapter I
Of Easements Generally
       4   “Easement” defined..................................................................................................... 800
       5   Continuous and discontinuous, apparent and non-apparent easements........................ 802
       6   Easement for limited time or on condition................................................................... 803
       7   Easements restrictive of certain rights.......................................................................... 803
Chapter II
The Imposition, Acquisition and Transfer of Easements
       8   Who may impose easements........................................................................................ 805
       9   Servient owners........................................................................................................... 805
     10   Lessor and mortgagor.................................................................................................. 805
     11   Lessee.......................................................................................................................... 806
     12   Who may acquire easements........................................................................................ 806
     13   Easements of necessity and quasi-easements............................................................... 806
     14   Direction of way of necessity....................................................................................... 810
     15   Acquisition by prescription.......................................................................................... 810
     16   Exclusion in favour of reversioner of servient heritage................................................ 818
     17   Rights which cannot be acquired by prescription......................................................... 818
     18   Customary easements.................................................................................................. 818
     19   Transfer of dominant heritage passes easement........................................................... 819
Chapter III
The Incidents of Easements
     20   Rules controlled by contract or title.............................................................................. 819
     21   Bar to use unconnected with enjoyment....................................................................... 819
     22   Exercise of easement. Confinement of exercise of easement........................................ 819
     23   Right to alter mode of enjoyment................................................................................. 820
     24   Right to do acts to secure enjoyment............................................................................ 821
            Accessory rights.......................................................................................................... 821
     25   Liability for expenses necessary for preservation of easements................................... 821
     26   Liability for damage for want of repair......................................................................... 821
     27   Servient owner not bound to do anything..................................................................... 822
     28   Extent of easements..................................................................................................... 822
            Easement of necessity ................................................................................................. 822
            Other easements........................................................................................................... 822
     29   Increase of easement.................................................................................................... 825
     30   Partition of dominant heritage...................................................................................... 825
     31   Obstruction in case of excessive user.......................................................................... 826
Chapter IV
The Disturbance of Easements
     32   Right to enjoyment without disturbance....................................................................... 826
     33   Suit for disturbance of easement.................................................................................. 827
     34   When cause of action arises for removal of support.................................................... 828
     35   Injunction to restrain disturbance................................................................................. 828
     36   Abatement of obstruction of easement......................................................................... 829
Chapter V
The Extinction, Suspension and Revival of Easements
     37   Extinction by dissolution of right of servient owner.................................................... 829
     38   Extinction by release.................................................................................................... 830
     39   Extinction by revocation.......................................................................................... ... 830
     40   Extinction on expiration of limited period or happening of dissolving condition......... 831
     41   Extinction on termination of necessity......................................................................... 831
     42   Extinction of useless easement.................................................................................... 831
     43   Extinction by permanent change in dominant heritage.................................................. 831
     44   Extinction on permanent alteration of servient heritage by superior force.................... 831
     45   Extinction by destruction of either heritage.................................................................. 832
     46   Extinction by unity of ownership................................................................................. 832
     47   Extinction by non-enjoyment....................................................................................... 832
     48   Extinction of accessory rights...................................................................................... 833
     49   Suspension of easement............................................................................................... 833
     50   Servient owner not entitled to require continuance....................................................... 833
            Compensation for damage coused by extinguishment or suspension........................... 833
     51   Revival of easement..................................................................................................... 834
Chapter VI
Licences
     52   “Licence” defined........................................................................................................ 834
     53   Who may grant licence................................................................................................. 838
     54   Grant may be express or implied................................................................................. 838
     55   Accessory licences annexed by law............................................................................. 838
     56   Licence when transferable............................................................................................ 838
     57   Grantor’s duty to disclose defects................................................................................ 839
     58   Grantor’s duty not to render property unsafe............................................................... 839
     59   Grantor’s transferee not bound by licence................................................................... 839
     60   Licence when revocable............................................................................................... 839
     61   Revocation express or implied..................................................................................... 842
     62   Licence when deemed revoked.................................................................................... 843
     63   Licensee’s rights on revocation.................................................................................... 844
     64   Licensee’s rights on eviction........................................................................................ 844
Appendices
Appendix
       1     The Registration Act 1908.......................................................................................... 847
       2     The Government Grants Act 1895............................................................................. 851
       3     The Partition Act 1893                                                                                     852
       4     The Powers-of-Attorney Act 1882............................................................................. 854
       5     The Code of Civil Procedure 1908............................................................................. 856
Index       ................................................................................................................................. 863

Sukumar Ray

LLM, Additional District & Sessions Judge, Darjeeling



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