Book detail

A.M. Bhattacharjee's Hindu Law and the Constitution
A.M. Bhattacharjee's Hindu Law and the Constitution
Author: Asok K. Ganguly
Edition: 3rd
Year of publication: 2018
No. of pages: 496
ISBN: 9788171773299
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1095.00
You pay 985.50

The classic work of a celebrated author is now stepping into its third edition. In the instant edition several chapters on secularism are included. Critical examination on some important judgments of Hon'ble Supreme Court are dealt with. The book answers to a number of pertinent and thought-provoking questions on the subject. The latest judgment of Hon'ble Supreme Court relating to talak-ul-bidaat has got an appropriate treatment.

• Personal Laws if law in force
• Separation between Church and State
• Uniform Civil Code
• Directive Principles of State Policy
• Temple entry
• Untouchable
• Caste disabilities
• Secularism
• Demolition of Babri Masjid

• Talak-ul-bidaat


 

Contents

Preface to the Third Edition .............................................................      [5]
Acknowledgements............................................................................      [9]
Preface to the First Edition ...............................................................    [11]
Table of Cases ......................................................................................    [27]
Chapter
       1    Hindu Law Age-old yet Age-less  ............................................... ..... 1
             Most ancient, yet strikingly modern............................................. 4
             Supremacy of law and independence of judiciary....................... 5
             Laws of Dharmasastras supreme,
                paramount, but yet dynamic........................................................ 6
             Purposive approach.......................................................................... 7
             Duty oriented socialist approach.................................................... 8
       2    Nature and Sources of Hindu Law   ........................................... ... 13
Sources of Hindu law
             Vedas—source of Hindu law—if.................................................. 16
             Smriti—source of Hindu law—if.................................................. 19
             Manu—compilation of tradition.................................................. 21
Divine origin of Hindu law
             Kali-Varjya doctrine....................................................................... 26
             Origin of caste system.................................................................... 28
             Breach of Rule.................................................................................. 31
             Smriti—compilation of customs................................................... 33
             Nature of ancient scriptural Hindu law...................................... 34
             Aryans—enforcement of usages................................................... 36
             Vedas and Smritis—the popular origin...................................... 37
             Smritis and Nibandhas—evidence of customs........................... 38
             Precedence—superseding commentaries   ................................. 41
       3    Was Hindu Law a ‘Law in Force’ within
             the Meaning of the Constitution?.............................................. .......   43
What is law?
             Meaning and import of law........................................................... 44
             Definition of law............................................................................. 45
             Hindu law as law in force.............................................................. 46
             Sudra whether competent to be a sannyasi................................ 48
             Interpretation of the Smritis.......................................................... 50
Hindu law if law in force
             Ban on bigamy among Hindus..................................................... 53
             Personal law as law in force.......................................................... 54
             Pre-Constitutional Hindu law...................................................... 57
             Personal laws of the Hindus whether law in force................... 58
             Polygamy for male and monogamy for female........................ 59
             Remarriage of Hindu widow—bar to......................................... 76
             Custom or usage—law in force if................................................. 77
             Personal law or custom have the force of law........................... 80
             Hindu law is law in force............................................................... 81
Hindu law and Mahomedan law if law in force
             Adoption of one law to another................................................... 86
             Legislation by referential incorporation.................................... 87
             Cancellation of bail in bailable offences..................................... 89
             Personal laws of the Hindus and
                   Mahomedans if law in force.................................................... 90
             Personal laws of the Hindus whether laws in force.................. 91
             One word more................................................................................ 92
       4    Impact of Constitution on Pre-Constitution Hindu Law ....... ........   94
Fundamental rights
             Personal liberty—scope of............................................................. 95
             Fundamental rights......................................................................... 96
             Equality as freedom of religion.................................................... 97
             Equality before the law.................................................................. 97
Discrimination
             Classification by legislation.......................................................... 99
             Classification on the basis of sex................................................ 101
             Discrimination in favour of women.......................................... 103
             Interpretation of Article 15(3)..................................................... 104
             Article 15(3)—Purposive construction....................................... 106
             Gender biasness............................................................................. 107
             State includes judiciary—whether.............................................. 111
       4    Impact of Constitution on
             Pre-Constitution Hindu Law—continued
             Sex as a ground of discrimination—personal law................... 113
             Polygamy for men but monogamy for women....................... 115
             Validity of the law........................................................................ 117
             Validity of classification—test.................................................... 119
Discrimination on the ground of sex
             Sons excluding daughters from inheritance............................. 124
             Change of gotra on the ground of marriage............................ 127
             Female heirs acquiring limited estates only............................ 129
             Females being denied the right to adopt.................................. 129
             Purposes of adoption ................................................................... 130
             Conclusion...................................................................................... 133
       5    Modern Hindu Law and
             the Constitution—Role of Religion ........................................... . 135
             Article 44 of the Constitution...................................................... 135
             The Caste Disabilities Removal Act 1850
             Marriage.......................................................................................... 141
             Guardianship.................................................................................. 145                  Adoption  ........................................................................................... 146........                   Maintenance             150
Hindu Law Acts of 1955-56
             The Hindu Marriage Act 1955..................................................... 166
             The Hindu Succession Act 1956................................................... 169
             The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act 1956.................... 175
             The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act 1956................... 176                  Adoption  ........................................................................................... 176
                   Maintenance............................................................................. 178
       6    Hindu Law and the Constitution ................................................ . 180
             Origin of the word ‘Hindu’.......................................................... 180                  Hindu Dharma and its history................................................................. 181
Hindu Dharma
             Hindu Dharma—not a religion in the Western sense............ 182
             Gandhiji on the openness in Hindu Dharma............................ 184
             Swami Vivekananda..................................................................... 184
             In Hindu Dharma, God is omnipresent..................................... 185
             Seers of God in every faith.......................................................... 186
             Practical aspect of Hindu Dharma.............................................. 187                  Hindu Dharma—judicially defined........................................................ 187
             Presence of God in nature............................................................ 190
       6    Hindu Law and the Constitution—continued
                   Hindu Dharma is closely connected with Hindu law............................................. 191
Dharma
             Dharma and what it stands for.................................................... 192
             Distinction between Dharma and law....................................... 193
       7    The Source of Hindu Law in the Background
             of the Nature of Hindu Law                                                         .. 201
Source of Hindu Law
             Multiple sources............................................................................ 201                  Hindu law flows from religion............................................................... 202
             Raja Rammohan and Swami Vivekananda on Vedas............. 203
             Truth and scriptures...................................................................... 205
Smriti
             Smriti and Shruti........................................................................... 206
             Nibandhas....................................................................................... 207
             How to interpret conflicts in Smritis......................................... 208                  Proactive role by commentators............................................................. 209                  Vedas and Smritis—comparative importance...................................... 210
       8    Principles of Justice, Equity and Good
             Conscience as Sources of Hindu Law   ................................... .. 213
             ‘Nyaya’ in Hindu law................................................................... 213                  Principles of justice, equity and good conscience................................ 214
             No unfettered discretion.............................................................. 219
       9    The Principles of Secularism in Hindu Law
             and Its Impact  on our Constitution ........................................ .. 221
Dharma
             What is Dharma?........................................................................... 221
             Dharma and natural law.............................................................. 222
Constitutional law
             Natural and constitutional law................................................... 223
             Concept of justice in Hindu law................................................. 224
             Dignity of the individual............................................................. 226
Secularism
             Tolerant and secular principles in Hindu law.......................... 227
             Same secular tradition in Jainism and Buddhism.................... 228
             Interaction between Hindu and Islamic culture...................... 229
             Ashoka’s edicts............................................................................... 230
             Ashoka’s wheel.............................................................................. 231
             Secular thoughts in Hindu religion........................................... 232
             Sudras and Muslims can become Hindu priests...................... 234
             Secularism and Indian Constitution.......................................... 236
     10    Mimamsa Interpretation in Hindu Jurisprudence
             and its Relevance in Constitutional Law                                   .. 237
Mimamsa interpretation
             Mimamsa and its application...................................................... 237
             How Mimamsa rules could be applied by court?.................... 238                  Justice Katju and Mimamsa...................................................................... 239                  Mimamsa and the Constitution............................................................... 241                  Mimamsa and secularism......................................................................... 242
Judicial pronouncements and Mimamsa
             Chief Justice John Edge and Mimamsa...................................... 244
             Dr. P.V. Kane and Mimamsa....................................................... 246
             Justice Srikrishna and Mimamsa................................................ 247
             Conclusion ..........................................................................................   248
     11    Diverse Personal Laws in India—Hindu Code Bill
             and the Importance of Uniform Civil Code ............................. .. 249
Diverse personal laws
             During British Raj.......................................................................... 249
             Various schools and systems of Hindu law.............................. 251
             Different Islamic laws................................................................... 252
Codification of Hindu law
             The reason why the British codified Hindu law...................... 252
             Cautious approach in codification of Hindu laws................... 253
             Preparation of Hindu Code Bill.................................................. 254
     12    Uniform Civil Code (Article 44) and Personal Laws                 .. 258
Personal laws and Article 44
             Personal laws and the relevant entries in the
                Seventh Schedule of the Constitution..................................... 258                  Delicate balance in the Constitution—Article 44................................. 260                                  The role of the Supreme Court and Article 44.............................................. 260
Uniform Civil Code
             Origin of the concept of Uniform Civil Code.......................... 261                                  Is the codification of Hindu Law a step
                towards Uniform Civil Code?................................................. 264                  Divided opinion over enforcing
                Uniform Civil Code................................................................... 266                  Constituent Assembly Debates and
                Uniform Civil Code................................................................... 267
             Divergence of view about Uniform Civil Code...................... 270
             Constitutional values in a pluralistic
                society and enforcing Uniform Civil Code........................... 272
     13    Attempts to Modify Muslim Personal Law
             and the Judgments of the Supreme Court ............................. .. 274
Modification of Muslim personal law
             Right to divorce of Muslim
                women and maintenance.......................................................... 276
             Amendment of Code of Criminal Procedure........................... 277
             Judicial interpretation and its effect........................................... 278
             Further amendment to the Code................................................ 278                  Amended section considered by
                the Supreme Court..................................................................... 279
             Further judgment of Supreme Court......................................... 280
Muslim personal law
             Human right read into Muslim personal law.......................... 281                  Shah Bano and later judgments on personal law................................. 282                  Shah Bano decision was defended........................................................... 284                  Resentment over Shah Bano decision..................................................... 284
     14    Article 44 and Judgments after
             Shah Bano’s Decision  .................................................................. 290
Effect of Shah Bano’s decision
             Judgments after Shah Bano.......................................................... 290
             The decision in Sarla Mudgal...................................................... 290
             Subsequent judgments after Sarla Mudgal............................... 292
Maintenance to Muslim divorced women
             Danial Latifi’s decision................................................................. 293
             Further judgments on Article 44................................................. 294
     15    Is ‘Personal Law’ a ‘Law in Force’ within the
             Meaning of Article 13 of the Constitution........................................   297
Laws in force
             Definitions in our Constitution.................................................. 297
             Custom or usage having the force of law................................. 299
             Purpose of Article 13..................................................................... 299
Fundamental Rights
             Fundamental Rights are not static.............................................. 301
             The wide reach of fundamental rights....................................... 302
             Wide definition of law in Article 13.......................................... 303
             Section 127 of the Code of Criminal Procedure....................... 304
             Mr. Seervai’s views....................................................................... 305
     16    The Concept of Secularism in the
             United States and the Indian Constitution.............................. ........   307
Amendment in US Constitution
             Two clauses of the First Amendment in
                US Constitution.......................................................................... 307
             Origin of liberty of conscience.................................................... 308
             Free exercise................................................................................... 308
Secularism
             US Constitution—first to establish a secular State.................. 308
             Separation between the church and the State........................... 309
             Perfect separation not possible................................................... 309
             The position in India..................................................................... 311
             Karachi resolution and secularism—
                Nehru and Gandhiji................................................................... 314
             Our Constitution........................................................................... 315
             Ameliorative secularism.............................................................. 317
     17    Western Thoughts of Secularism                                               ........   319
             Early thoughts................................................................................ 319
             Tolerance in Christianity............................................................. 320
             Reformist movement.................................................................... 321
             Pursuit for truth............................................................................. 321
             Locke, Spinoza and Mill............................................................... 322
     18    Secularism as a Principle—Splendid
             Symphony of the Universal Soul ............................................. .. 325
Secularism
             Meaning of secularism................................................................. 325
             Ideal secular society...................................................................... 326
             Secular State.................................................................................... 327
             Moral value in a secular society................................................. 329
             Secularism and its protection under the
                Constitution of India................................................................. 330
Seperation between State and religion
             No strict separation between State and religion..................... 331
             Constitution creates a tolerant society...................................... 332
             Our secularism is different from Western
                concept of secularism................................................................. 332
Judiciary and secularism
             Judiciary explaining secularism................................................. 333
     19    Supreme Court’s Judgment on Hindutva,
             Hindu State and the Erosion of Secular Values                       .. 339
The judgments
             The factual background................................................................ 339
             The Speeches                                                                                  . 340  Election law and the Constitution
             Nature of the right to seek election........................................... 342
             Corrupt practice and electoral process...................................... 342
Supreme Court and the religion
             Principles laid down in Prabhoo................................................ 346
             Formulations in Prabhoo............................................................. 346
             Errors in Prabhoo.......................................................................... 348
Hindutva
             Hindutva, explained by Savarkar............................................... 353
             Golwalker’s views on Hindutva................................................. 354
             Apart from Prabhoo, no Supreme Court
                judgment defined Hindutva..................................................... 355
             Further errors in Prabhoo ........................................................... 355
             Prabhoo's appeal was dismissed................................................ 360
             Manohar Joshi................................................................................ 360
     20    Babri Masjid-Ramjanambhumi Dispute—Its Impact
             on Secular Constitution and Hindu Values                                .......   366
Secular values
             The background............................................................................. 366
             Diversity and pluralism............................................................... 367
             Demolition was against Hindu values...................................... 367
Supreme Court in demolition of Mosque
             Critical analysis of the judgment of the
                Supreme Court in Ismail Faruqui........................................... 368
                   Recital of facts in the judgment................................................... 370
             Majority judgments’ reliance on judgments
                which are not applicable........................................................... 373
             Errors in Ismail Faruqui............................................................... 377
             The purpose of the Act and the flaws
                 in the majority judgment....................................................     378
             Minority view is correct  ............................................................. 379
             Error in the majority judgment.................................................. 380
             Minority view is correct............................................................... 383
     20    Babri Masjid-Ramjanambhumi Dispute—Its Impact
             on Secular Constitution and Hindu Values—continued
             Secularism principles laid down in S.R. Bommai 
                were not followed in the majority judgment........................ 384
             Errors in the majority judgments............................................... 384
Demolition of Babri Masjid and
fundamental rights
             The act is examined....................................................................... 386
             Act is violative of Arts. 25 and 26............................................... 387
             The Act to efface secularism........................................................ 388
Majority judgment and secularism
             The majority judgment may lead to
                non-secular activities ................................................................ 389
             The majority judgment not following Bommai view............ 390
             Constitutional morality............................................................... 391
             Offering of namaz in a mosque is an
                essential religious practice....................................................... 394
     21    Temple Entry, Untouchables and the Constitution                 ........   398
Casteism
             Temple entry.................................................................................. 398
             Fight against casteism.................................................................. 400
             Gandhiji on casteism..................................................................... 402
             Principle of neutrality in education........................................... 403
             Judicial system of British India................................................... 403
             Dr. Ambedkar on casteism.......................................................... 407
             Supreme Court on casteism......................................................... 407
Untouchability
             Acts to remove untouchability................................................... 409
             Definition of untouchability....................................................... 410
             Articles abolishing untouchability............................................ 410
             Fundamental rights and directive principles........................... 411
             Article 17......................................................................................... 413
             Temple entry and laws for abolishing
                “untouchability”......................................................................... 416
Elimination of caste inequities
             Ameliorative secularism.............................................................. 417
             Supreme Courts decision in Shirur Mutt.................................. 418
             Religion defined............................................................................ 419
             Shirur Mutt’s principles watered down..................................... 420
Appendices
Appendix
       1    The Constitution of India   ............................................................. 429
       2    The Government of India Act, 1935    ........................................... 436
       3    The Government of India Act, 1915   ............................................ 437
       4    The Caste Disabilities Removal Act, 1850    ................................. 438
       5    The Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856                                  .. 439
       6    The Hindu Married Women’s Right to
             Separate Residence and Maintenance Act, 1946    ..................... 440
       7    The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955                                                      .. 441
       8    The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1946    ..................... 442
       9    The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956                    .. 444
Index                                                                                      447          

Asok K. Ganguly

Former Judge, Supreme Court of India.

Legal Practitioners



Special Deals
Special Deals
Enjoy 7.5% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 1600
Use Code
Enjoy 12% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 2000
Use Code
X
Enjoy 7.5% extra discount on purchase minimum worth Rs. 1600
Use Code
View all Deals
Web Administrator LNSEL