Book detail

The Land Surveying
The Land Surveying
Law, Practice & Procedure
Author: Arjun Kanungo
Edition: 1st
Year of publication: 2018
No. of pages: 364
ISBN: 9788171773282
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 650.00
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The measuring of a tract of land, its boundaries and contents is called survey. In ancient India reference to documentation of survey was found. Land survey got the modern scientific touch in the British period. Dividing the whole gamut of the subject into 11 chapters, beginning with 'Terminology' and concluding with 'Court's Order', the author has discussed almost all the branches relating to survey. Acts relating to survey in different States are added in Appendices which assist the readers to acquaint with the law relating to survey.

• Instruments of survey
• Methods of survey
• Methods of relaying
• Graphical comparison
• Post survey work
• Commissions and court's order

Chapter
       1    Terminology ......
.................................................................................. 1
            Traverse............................................................................................... 1
            Classification of traverse................................................................... 2
            Classification as per use of instruments.......................................... 2
                   Compass traverse......................................................................... 2
                   Theodolite traverse...................................................................... 2
                   Plane table traverse..................................................................... 2
            Classification as per geometrical figure.......................................... 2
            Classification as per accuracy of traverse........................................ 3
            Classification as per number of control stations............................ 3
            Different steps of traverse................................................................. 4
            An easy traverse process.................................................................... 4
            Different measurements in case of Theodolite traverse............... 5
            Polygon area........................................................................................ 5
            Morabbas or quadrilaterals................................................................ 5
            Morabba or quadrilateral stations.................................................... 6
            Importance of morabbas..................................................................... 7
            Length of morabba line...................................................................... 7
            Points to be noted regarding preparation of morabbas.................. 7
            Shikmi lines and the process of its drawing................................... 7
            Points to remember during drawing of shikmi lines..................... 8
            Chanda and Goda................................................................................ 9
            Dhai.................................................................................................... 10
            Field.................................................................................................... 10
            In Situ survey.................................................................................... 10
            Trijunction pillar.............................................................................. 11
            Thoka line.......................................................................................... 12
            Triangulation and prolongation .................................................... 12
            More information about triangulation.......................................... 13
            Main features of triangulation....................................................... 14
            Prolongation...................................................................................... 14
            Alamat .............................................................................................. 15
            List I—List of Conventional Signs for use in Small
                Scale Map & Police Station Map................................................. 16
            List II—List of Conventional Signs for use in                                                     
                Cadastral Map............................................................................... 31
            Minimum unit of survey.................................................................. 50
            Jurisdiction list number.................................................................. 50
            Why chain survey is called linear survey?.................................... 51
            Map..................................................................................................... 51
            Traverse survey................................................................................ 51
            Khaka................................................................................................. 52
            Partal line.......................................................................................... 52
            The following stations may be used as partal stations................ 53
            Method to apply partal in city......................................................... 55
            The following points should be noted during
               certification after applying partal line....................................... 55
                 •  P-70 sheet................................................................................. 55
                 •  Length of arm of square on P-70 sheet
                     according to different scale.................................................... 56
                 •  Area of a square on P-70 sheet............................................... 56
                 •  Scale of map............................................................................. 56
                 •  UT Area (Universal Theorem Area) ..................................... 56
            Kuttan................................................................................................ 57
            Bata plot numbers............................................................................ 57
            Chut plot............................................................................................ 58
            Diluvion............................................................................................. 59
            Alluvion............................................................................................. 59
            Revisional survey ............................................................................ 59
            Adopted station................................................................................. 59
            Angle of depression.......................................................................... 59
            North direction................................................................................. 60
            Offset.................................................................................................. 60
            Origin of survey................................................................................ 62
            Projection of little or small area in the map................................. 63
            Different instruments used in survey........................................... 63
            Optical square............................................................................... ... 66
            Main station, main survey line, subsidiary or tie station............................... 67
            Check line.......................................................................................... 68
            Bearings............................................................................................. 68
            Geographical meridian.................................................................... 68
            Magnetic bearing.............................................................................. 69
            Arbitrary meridian........................................................................... 69
            Grid and grid meridian.................................................................... 69
            Measurement..................................................................................... 70
       2    Survey Instruments....................................................................... .......   72
            Chain.................................................................................................. 72
            Metric chain....................................................................................... 72
            Engineer chain.................................................................................. 72
            Revenue chain................................................................................... 73
            Steel band chain................................................................................ 73
            Gunter’s chain................................................................................... 73
            Method to check the length of the chain........................................ 73
            Advantages and disadvantages
              between chain steel and tape........................................................ 75
            Some other instruments measuring distance............................... 75
                   Passometer.................................................................................. 75
                   Odometer..................................................................................... 76
                   Perambulator.............................................................................. 76
            Instruments which are used to take offset.................................... 76
                   French cross staff....................................................................... 76
                   Cross staff.................................................................................... 77
                   Offset rod..................................................................................... 77
            Optical square................................................................................... 78
            Main principle of optical square..................................................... 78
            Limit of taking offset........................................................................ 79
            Divider............................................................................................... 79
            Magnetic needle................................................................................ 79
            Plumb................................................................................................. 80
            Spirit level......................................................................................... 80
            Sight vane (Alidade/Sight rules)..................................................... 81
            Ten pins.............................................................................................. 82
            Gunia (offset scale)........................................................................... 83
            Field book.......................................................................................... 84
            Diagonal scale................................................................................... 85
            A plane table with three legs.......................................................... 87
            A conical pot to keep map................................................................ 87
            Acre comb........................................................................................... 88
            Planimeter......................................................................................... 88
            Procedure of checking a planimeter............................................... 89
            Eidograph........................................................................................... 89
            Pantograph......................................................................................... 90
            Reducing of map with the help of Pantograph.............................. 91
            Enlarging of map.............................................................................. 91
       3    Chain Survey................................................................................            92
            Process of survey.........................................................................     92
            Process for taking offsets............................................................      94
            Procedure of survey.....................................................................      96
            Orientation of table.....................................................................      98
            Tracing out missing pegs............................................................      99
                   First device  ...........................................................................      99
                   Second device........................................................................    100
                   Third device                                                                                       101
                   Fourth device.........................................................................    101
            Sorting out obstructions of river on the chain line.................    102
            Survey of plots and drawing in the map...................................    103
            Limitation of error......................................................................    105
            Distribution of error...................................................................    106
            Process of survey step by step....................................................    106
            Process of survey of train line...................................................    107
            Some special cases.......................................................................    108
            Another case where flag is not seen.........................................    109
            Alternative way to the above case.............................................    109
            River survey along mouza border..............................................    110
                   First method..........................................................................    110
                   Second method......................................................................    110
                   Third method.........................................................................    111
            Survey of sloping ground............................................................    111
                   Direct method........................................................................    111
                   Indirect method.....................................................................    112
            Various methods of river measurement...................................    115
                   First method..........................................................................    115
                   Second method......................................................................    116
                   Third method.........................................................................    117
                   Fourth method.......................................................................    118
                   Fifth method..........................................................................    119
            Some difficult problems..............................................................    120
                   First method..........................................................................    120
                   Second method......................................................................    121
            Survey in sloping land where flags are not visible.................    121
            Chaining.......................................................................................    122
             Ranging.........................................................................................    122
            Some practical use of chain survey...........................................    123
                   Application 1..........................................................................    123
                   Application 2..........................................................................    124
                   Application 3..........................................................................    124
                   Application 4..........................................................................    125
                   Application 5..........................................................................    126
                   Application 6..........................................................................    126
                   Application 7..........................................................................    127
                   Application 8..........................................................................    128
                   Application 9..........................................................................    128
                   Application 10........................................................................    129
                   Application 11........................................................................    129
                   Application 12........................................................................    130
       4    Plane Table Survey...............................................................................   131
            Plane table survey.......................................................................... 131
            When plane table survey is used.................................................. 132
            Drawing board for plane table...................................................... 132
            Different methods of plane table survey..................................... 133
            Orientation of plane table............................................................. 133
            Orientation of the plane table by back sighting......................... 133
            The Ray............................................................................................ 134
            Note 1   ............................................................................................ 135
            Note 2   ............................................................................................ 135
            Note 3   ............................................................................................ 135
                   A. Survey with plane table by radiation method................. 141
                   B. Survey with plane table by intersection method............ 142
                   C. Survey with plane table by traversing method............... 144
                       Procedure.............................................................................. 144
                   D. Survey with plane table by resection method................. 145
            Note 4—The use of plane table in relaying................................. 147
            Relay of pegs with plane table and sight vane............................ 147
            Survey of a big river with plane table......................................... 149
            Advantages...................................................................................... 150
            Disadvantages................................................................................. 150
            What are the sources of the errors in plane table survey?........................................... 151
            Description of two important instruments
               used for plane table survey......................................................... 151
                   A. Drawing board..................................................................... 151
                   B. Alidade.................................................................................. 152
            Procedure to adjust the closing error for
                   plane table survey work.......................................................... 152
       5    Method of Relaying in the Field                                                  .. 155
            First stage—Making a rough sketch of the
                boundary in dispute in the field...
............................................. 156
            Second stage—Measuring by means of scale the
                distances from the turning points of the disputed
                line to the fixed points in the old plan to be relayed.............. 157
            Third stage—Filling up of the interiors....................................... 158
            Fourth stage—Tracing the case map and
                colouring the disputed portion................................................... 159
            Example........................................................................................... 159
                   First stage.................................................................................. 159
                   Second stage.............................................................................. 159
                   Third stage—Actual measurement in the
                     field or surveying................................................................... 160
                   Fourth stage—Filling up of the interiors.............................. 161
                   Fifth stage—Tracing the case map and
                     colouring the disputed portion............................................. 161
            Difference between the method of “superposition”
                and that of “relaying in the field” ............................................. 161
            Difference between the method of “graphical comparison”
                and that of “relaying in the field”.............................................. 162
            Example—Relaying in the field.................................................... 162
                   (a)   Relaying of the Howrah Town Survey Map  
                            (i.e. the Holding No. 1 Kashinath Chatterjee Lane) ................................. 163
                   (b)   Relaying of kobala plans.................................................. 167
                   (c)  Local features..................................................................... 168
            Commissioner’s finding................................................................. 169
            Sample of court’s opinion............................................................... 169
                   Model Report............................................................................. 171
       6    Chain Survey and Relaying                                                         ........   176
            English and Bengal land measure............................................... 176
            Precaution in laying the chain lines............................................ 176
            Table showing relation between English and

                Bengal Land Measure................................................................ 177
            Field book........................................................................................ 178
            Laying a short line......................................................................... 180
            Laying a long line........................................................................... 182
            Use of optical square...................................................................... 182
            Laying perpendiculars................................................................... 184
            Measuring vertical distance.......................................................... 185
                Example....................................................................................... 186
            Important problems........................................................................ 186
                Explanation................................................................................. 187
       7    Method of Graphical Comparison......................................................   188
             Surveying the boundary of the land............................................ 188
             Measuring the plan to be relayed................................................. 189
             Plotting the present survey lines................................................. 189
             Plotting the old survey lines (or relaying the old lines
                and checking them in relation to the “base line”).................. 189
             Finishing the comparative map.................................................... 190
                Example ...................................................................................... 191
             First stage of surveying the boundary of the land..................... 191
            Second stage of measuring the plans to be relayed.................... 191
             Third stage of plotting the present survey.................................. 193
            Fourth stage of relaying the old survey lines............................. 193
            Fifth stage of finishing the comparative map............................. 194
            An example (in the form of a report) of relaying
                by the method of “Graphical Comparison”.............................. 195
            Allegation of the plaintiff.............................................................. 195
            Contention of the defendant......................................................... 195
         Directions to Commissioner ........................................................ 195
1. Relaying the Partition Plan
            Stage I of surveying the boundary (mentioning
                   the base line).................................................................................................................................... 196
            Stage II............................................................................................ 196
            Stages III & IV of plotting the survey lines................................ 196
            Stage V............................................................................................. 197
2. Relaying the Town Survey Plan
            Mark that the base line, previously mentioned,
               is again  connected by the “starting point”
               in relaying the town survey plan.............................................. 197
3. Area of the Holding No. 13
4. Surrounding Local Features of the Ka and Kha land
            Relaying of the pattas.................................................................... 199
            Mark, how the result of relaying deeds is given........................ 199
            Commissioner’s opinion................................................................ 199
            Practical hints................................................................................. 200
       8    Post Survey Work..................................................................................   202
            Creation of new mouzas................................................................ 202
            Process of sheet numbering.......................................................... 202
            Acre comb—its application............................................................ 202
            Determination of area with the help of acre comb.................... 203
            Printing of map............................................................................... 205
            Enlarging and reducing of map.................................................... 207
                (a)  Graphical method................................................................ 207
                (b)  Mechanical method............................................................. 208
                (c)   Photographic method.......................................................... 208
            Preparation of map and ancillary post survey functions........... 209
                   (1) Drawing with pencil.......................................................... 210
                   (2) Drawing with blue cobalt ................................................. 210
                   (3) Drawing with Black-Chinese or Black-Indian.............. 210
                   (4) Drawing with red colour for rectification....................... 210
            Boundary comparison.................................................................... 210
            Numbering of plots......................................................................... 211
            Sheet-junch..................................................................................... 213
       9    Provisions relating to Commission 
            under the Code of Civil Procedure............................................ ........   215
            Section 75. Power of Court to issue commissions...................... 215
Order XXVI
Commissions
            Rule 9. Commissions to make local investigations.................... 215
            Rule 10. Procedure of Commissioner........................................... 216
            Rule 13. Commission to make partition of
                immovable property................................................................... 216
            Rule 14. Procedure of Commissioner........................................... 216
            Rule 15. Expenses of commission to be paid into Court............ 217
            Rule 16. Powers of Commissioners.............................................. 217
            Rule 16A. Questions objected to before the Commissioner......................... 217
            Rule 17. Attendance and examination of
                witnesses before Commissioner............................................... 218
            Rule 18. Parties to appear before Commissioner....................... 218
            Rule 18A. Application of order to execution proceedings............................ 219
            Rule 18B. Court to fix a time for return of commission............ 219
Order XXXIX
Temporary Injunctions and Interlocutory Orders
            Rule 7. Detention, preservation, inspection, etc.
                of subject-matter of suit............................................................. 219
     10    Units & Conversion Tables..................................................................   220
            Units of measurements.................................................................. 220
            Table 1–British Unit of Length .................................................... 220
            Table 2–British Unit of Area                                                       ..         221
            Table 3–Metric Unit of Length  .................................................... 221
            Table 4–Metric Unit of Area                                                        .. 221
            Table 5–Some units which are used in West Bengal
                some parts of Odisha, Bihar, Assam,
                Jharkhand and other States...................................................... 222
            Table 6                                                                                            .. 223
                (a) Inch, Foot, Yard into Metre................................................. 223
                (b) Metre into Yard, Foot, Inch................................................. 223
            Table 7–Chain                                                                               .. 224
            Table 8–Area .................................................................................. 225
            Table 9–Chatak, Sq. ft., Sq. yd. Sq. m........................................... 227
            Table 10–Sheet Measurement into Ground Measurement....... 228
            Table 11–Mainly used in Bihar, Jharkhand State...................... 230
            Table 12–Conversion from Acre and Decimals to Bigha,
                Katha, Dhur and Dhurki for Bhojpur and
                Rohtas (districts) ........................................................................ 231
            Table 13–Conversion table used in different
               districts of Bihar.......................................................................... 234
     11    Court’s Orders.......................................................................................   235
Appendices
Appendix
      1    The Andhra Pradesh Survey and Boundaries Act, 1923.......... ........   247
      2      The Andhra Pradesh Survey and Boundaries
                    (Validation) Act, 1924                                                                             ... 252
      3    The Andhra Pradesh Survey and Boundaries
              (Extension and Amendment) Act, 1958...........................................   253
      4    The Bengal Survey Act, 1875................................................................   254
      5    The Bihar Survey and Settlement Manual, 1959................................    260
      6    The Bihar and Orissa Municipal Survey Act, 1920.............................    272
      7    The Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908................................................    275
      8    Land Survey in Gujarat State...............................................................    277
      9    The Karnataka Revenue Survey Manual.............................................    288
    10    The Kerala Survey and Boundaries Act, 1961....................................    317
    11    The (Tamil Nadu) Survey and Boundaries Act, 1923........................   333
    12      The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and
                        Land Reforms Act, 1950                                                         339

Arjun Kanungo

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