Book detail

Privatization & Globalization
Privatization & Globalization
Changing Legal Paradigm
Author: Sairam Bhat
Edition: 1st
Year of publication: 2017
No. of pages: 534
ISBN: 9788171773305
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1295.00
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The Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) Poliy was considered the window of great opportunity for India to formally enter into international market as a potential contender. The year 1991 dawned with an economic crisis in the country; it was by virtue of this divergent LPG Policy aimed at opening new avenues for the economy to grow. The book analyses the trends and policy dimensions of privatization and focuses on the growth and impact of global policy on the Indian legal system.

• ADR - Success and Failures
• Regulatory Governance and Economic Liberalization
• Corporate Governance and TRansnational Corporations
• Fair competition and Consumer Welfare
• WTO - Reforms and Challenges
• Business and Human Rights 
• Neo-liberal National Security

Part I
Developments in Constitutional Law
Chapter  
      1     Non-profit Sector’s Response to Globalization—Towards
             Alleviation of Difficulties and Empowerment of the Vulnerable
– P. Ishwara Bhat...................................................................................                1
Introduction.............................................................................................         1
Globalizing the Non-Profit Philosophy in Historical Context..............................         4
Globalization in the Modern Context...................................................         5
Factors of Production—Law and Globalization...................................         6
      Land—Globalization and the NPOs................................................         6
      Labour—Globalization and the NPOs............................................         7
      Capital—Globalization and the NPOs............................................         8
      Enterprises—Globalization and the NPOs ...................................         9
      Intellectual Properties and NPOs...................................................       11
Globalization’s Spheres of Influence and NPOs.................................       12
      Education and NPOs.........................................................................       12
      Role of NPOs in Filling the Gaps of Welfare Schemes................       15
      NPOs and Protection of Human Rights..........................................       15
      Transnational Charity in the Context of Globalization...............       16
Conclusion...............................................................................................       17
      2     Illicit Financial Flows, Globalization and the Rule of Law
– Anthony Cullen..................................................................................                18
Introduction.............................................................................................       18
Defining the Rule of Law.......................................................................       18
The Significance of the Rule of Law at
      National and International Levels.................................................       20
Addressing Illicit Financial Flows........................................................       22
Conclusion...............................................................................................       23
      3     Impact of Liberalization on the State, the Judiciary and the People
– Amit Rajak & Paroma Mukherjee.....................................................                24
Introduction.............................................................................................       24
Changes in the Agricultural Sector......................................................       25
   Table 1: Share of Agriculture in the GDP of the Country.................................       26
Declining Levels of Agricultural Output.............................................       26
   Table 2: Region-wise Level and Growth of Value Output..............       27
   Table 3: Region-wise Level and Growth of Crop Yield...................       27
   Table 4: Region-wise Level and Growth of Net Sown Area...............................       28
   Table 5: Region-wise Level and Growth of
      Gross Cropped Area (GCA)..............................................................       28
   Table 6: Region-wise Use of Various Inputs.....................................       28
   Table 7: Region-wise Share of Various Crops
      in Total Gross Cropped Area............................................................       29
The Nature of the State in the Post-Liberalization Period...................................       32
Workforce and Employment..................................................................       33
Conditions of Poverty.............................................................................       34
The State—Judiciary and the Liberal Economic Policies..................       35
Conclusion...............................................................................................       39
      4     Constitutional Response to Economic Liberalization
– Ameya Sapre.........................................................................................                40
Introduction.............................................................................................       40
Bare Beginnings—Industrial Policy Resolution 1948 .......................       40
The Judiciary and Article 12..................................................................       41
Constituents of State..............................................................................       42
Economic Constitution of the Nation—Industrial
   Policy Resolution 1956........................................................................       43
The Reality...............................................................................................       45
      Status of “Other Authorities” and “Local Authorities”.................       45                    
Inception of Liberalization—Industrial
          Licensing Policy of 1970...............................................................      46
      Liberalization in 1973......................................................................       48
      Liberalization in 1975......................................................................       48
      Article 12 and Instrumentality of State.........................................       48
      Modifying the Economic Constitution—
          Industrial Policy Statement 1977................................................       50
      Continuance of the Liberalization..................................................       51
      Article 12—Sukhdev Singh Ensued...............................................       51
     Reiteration to the Basic Approach—
          Industrial Policy of 1980..............................................................       52
      Article 12—Controversy Finally Subsided....................................       53
Opening the Doors—New Industrial Policy 1991...............................       55
The 1991 Policy not in Accordance with Preamble.............................       56
LPG Policy and Application of Fundamental Rights..........................       56
Vertical Application................................................................................       57
Horizontal Application...........................................................................       58
Conclusion...............................................................................................       59

Part II
Regulatory Developments
Chapter
      5     The Competition Law Regime in Post-1991
             Economic Scenario in India
– Manas Kumar Chaudhuri...................................................................                60
Introduction.............................................................................................      60
The Transition & Legal Status of the Competition
   Commission of India............................................................................       62
The Evolution of New Jurisprudence...................................................       67
      Adjudicatory provisions....................................................................       68
      Regulatory provisions......................................................................       68
      Procedural provisions.......................................................................       68
      Important Case Laws........................................................................       68
Challenges...............................................................................................       72
Conclusion...............................................................................................       74
      6     Regulating Cartels—Challenges for Competition Law
– Sairam Bhat..........................................................................................                75
Introduction.............................................................................................       75
Cartels—How and Why?.........................................................................       76
Regulating Cartels..................................................................................       78
      Bid-rigging Cartels...........................................................................       80
      Price Fixing Cartel...........................................................................       81
      Market Sharing Cartels and Output Restricting Cartels..............................       83
      Parallel Pricing.................................................................................       87
Burden of Proof and Issues of Evidence in Cartel Cases...................       88
Justifications/Defences in Cartel Cases...............................................       91
      Defence in Bid-rigging—Presence of Gateway.............................       94
Leniency Programme by Competition Authorities.............................       95
Conclusion...............................................................................................       97
      7     Abuse of Dominant Position under Competition Law
– Sairam Bhat..........................................................................................                99
Introduction.............................................................................................       99
Competition Law on Abuse of Dominant Position..............................     101
Type of Behaviour that Constitutes ‘Abuse’.........................................     102
Checking Abuse of Dominant Position in India—
   Some Reflections..................................................................................     104
Conclusion...............................................................................................     110
      8     Enforcement of Competition Law in India Through                                  
             Private Action for Damages
– Praveen Tripathi..................................................................................                112
Introduction.............................................................................................     112
Public versus Private Enforcement......................................................     114
Enforcement of Competition Law in India..........................................     120
Conclusion...............................................................................................     125
      9     Global Regulatory Compliance for Transnational Corporations
– S. Balasubramanya............................................................................                127
Introduction.............................................................................................     127
Global Regulatory Compliance—A Preview........................................     129
      Compliance Requirements..............................................................     131
      Few Sample Cases for Discussion..................................................     132
      Possible Consequence of Non-compliance ....................................     134
      Reasons for Non-compliance ..........................................................     135
Approach for Global Statutory & Regulatory
   Compliance by Transnational Corporations.....................................     137
Do Transnational Corporations Really have a Choice?.....................     140
      How do these Companies go about such a
         Comprehensive Regulatory Compliance?...................................     140
      Creating a Culture of Compliance .................................................     140
      Increased Investment in Compliance Operations........................     140
      Keeping Pace with Changing Regulatory Landscape...................     140
      Monitoring Third Party Risk...........................................................     140
      Encouraging Whistleblower Activity.............................................     140
      Companies that have Embraced Compliance as
         a Core Principle Recorded the Following...................................     141
      Recommendations.............................................................................     141
Conclusion...............................................................................................     143
    10     Competition Law and Consumer Welfare
– Susmitha P. Mallaya..........................................................................          146
Introduction.............................................................................................     146
Application of Competition Law in
   Financial Sector—An Overview..........................................................     149
      Consumer Welfare—Basic Concept................................................     149
      Securities Market and Competition Law.......................................     150
      Insurance Sector and Competition Law.........................................     151
      Banking Sector and Competition Law...........................................     151
Issues and Concerns of Consumers in Financial Sector....................     152
Role of CCI in Protecting Welfare of Financial Consumers................................     154
Reflections of Welfare of Financial Consumer...................................     155
Conclusion...............................................................................................     156
    11     Energy Sector Regulation in India
– Sharmila R.                                                                                                           158
Introduction.............................................................................................     158
      Regulation—A Conceptual Framework ........................................     158
      Regulators in the Energy Sector in India......................................     160
Analysis of the Efficiency of Sectoral Regulators...............................     161
     Competition.......................................................................................     162
      Independence....................................................................................     162
      Accountability and Transparency...................................................     163
Efficiency of Energy Sector Regulators—An Appraisal.....................     163
      Power Sector......................................................................................     163
      Oil and Gas Sector............................................................................     166                    
Coal Sector...............................................................................................     168
Conclusion...............................................................................................     170
Part III
Human Rights & Justice Perspective
Chapter
    12     Impact of Liberalization on Workers’ Legitimate Rights
– Jeet Singh Mann                                                                                                   172
Introduction ............................................................................................     172
Recognition of Social Security Protection for Workers.....................     173
Impact of Liberalization on the Judiciary and
   Dilution of Workers’ Legitimate Rights............................................     175
Liberalization & Privatization and the Apex
   Judiciary on Retrenchment Compensation......................................     177
      Demystifying the Concept of Retrenchment.................................     177
      The Judgments of the Supreme Court before 1991......................     178
      Reinstatement with Back Wages for
          Illegal Retrenchment...................................................................     179
      The Supreme Court’s Judgments after 1991—
          Deviation on Reinstatement and Back Wages..........................     180
      Protection of Industry at the Cost of Compromising
          with the Workers’ Rights.............................................................     181
      Granting Compensation in Lieu of Reinstatement......................     182
Liberalization of the Employment Disablement
   Compensation by the Judiciary...........................................................     183
      Scrutiny of the Employment
          Disablement Compensation.........................................................     183
      Liberalization of Trade and Business Policies
          and Judicial Decisions on Employment
          Injury Compensation....................................................................     185
Supreme Court Judges Raising the Concerned of
   Retrenched Workers Right in the Era of Liberalization.................     187
Final Thoughts........................................................................................     189
    13     Strategic Labour Organizing, Law and the Rise of
             Non-Traditional Forms of Worker Organization
– Harris Freeman....................................................................................                191
Introduction.............................................................................................     191
Problems Defining Contingent or Precarious Work..........................     192
The Dominant Critique of Precarious
   Work and Its Limitations....................................................................     195
The Increasing Centrality of Precarious,
   Contingent Work Arrangements in Global Production..................     197
Uneven Development—Securing Collective
   Rights for the Contingent Workforce................................................     199
The Legal Status of the Joint-Employer—
   Contested Terrain................................................................................     201
Non-Traditional Worker Organizations—
      Joint Employment, Collective Bargaining and
      the Limits of Worker Center Strategies........................................     202
    14     Achieving Justice via Independent and
             Impartial Tribunals or Forums
– A. Govindjee & JA van der Walt                                                                       209
Introduction.............................................................................................     209
Labour Dispute Resolution in South Africa........................................     210
      Introduction.......................................................................................     210
The Labour Relations Act 1995..............................................................     212
      Purpose ..............................................................................................     212
      The Commission for Conciliation
          Mediation and Arbitration...........................................................     213
Conciliation.............................................................................................    214
Arbitration...............................................................................................    216
Con-Arb....................................................................................................    217
Review......................................................................................................    217
An Overview of Labour Dispute Resolution in India.........................    218
      Conciliation.......................................................................................     220
Voluntary Arbitration.............................................................................     223
      Courts of Inquiry..............................................................................     223
      Labour Courts....................................................................................     224
      National and Industrial Tribunals.................................................     224
      Lok Adalats........................................................................................     228
Comparative Analysis—Key Distinguishing
   Characteristics of the South African System....................................     228
      Reasons for Comparison..................................................................     228
      Independent and Impartial Tribunal
          Working under Strict Timeframes..............................................     229
      Highly-trained Commissioners.......................................................     229
      Wide Jurisdiction..............................................................................     229
      Compulsory Arbitration...................................................................     230
      Scale and Usability ..........................................................................     230
Conclusion...............................................................................................     230
    15     Neo-liberal National Security—Wielding Counterterrorism
             Powers to Protection Economic Growth
– Sudha Setty                                                                                                          231
Introduction.............................................................................................     231
How “National Security” came to Encompass
   “Economic Security”.............................................................................     233
          The Evolving Definition of Terrorism.......................................     234
          Selective Application of the “Terrorist” Label...........................     236
          Broadening “Terrorism” to Include Economic Matters............     238
How Broad Definitions of Terrorism may Lead to Abuse
   under the Guise of Maintaining Economic Security.......................     239
      Cracking Down on So-called “Anti-nationalists”..........................     239
     Secret Surveillance and the Possibility of Using
         Counterterrorism Tools to Protect
               “Economic Security”.................................................................     242
Conclusion...............................................................................................     244
    16     Human Rights’ Anti-Globalization in a
             Multi-national Corporatized State
– Matthew H. Charity  ..........................................................................     246
A Local Abdication of Human Rights Enforcement............................     246
Human Rights and the Neo-liberalized State......................................     248
Judicial Refusal to Contest Neo-liberal Norms..................................     252
    17     The Role of Human Rights Against Poverty
– Tri Lisiani Prihatinah                                                                               256
Introduction.............................................................................................     256
Sustainable Development and its Critique..........................................     256
Human Rights, Poverty and States’ Responsibilities..........................     260
Linking Development and Human Rights...........................................     263
Linking Gender and Sustainable Development..................................     265
Conclusion...............................................................................................     268
    18     The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Human Rights
– Lisa P. Lukose.......................................................................................                269
Introduction.............................................................................................     269
Globalization...........................................................................................     270
Pros and Cons of Globalization.............................................................     271
Economic Globalization.........................................................................     272
Impact of Economic Globalization on Human Rights........................     273
Developing Country’s Rural Area.........................................................     275
Globalization, India and Impact on Human Right..............................     277
Conclusion...............................................................................................     278
    19     Transparency and Accountability in Governance and Public Services
– Mahantesh B. Madiwalar & B.S. Reddy..........................................                280
Introduction.............................................................................................     280
The Nature of the Corporation and Corporate Governance................................     281
Corporate Social Responsibility............................................................     283
      Take Responsibility.............................................................................. 283
      Contribute Money................................................................................. 283
Good Corporate Governance..................................................................     283
Meaning of Corporate Governance.......................................................     284
      Need for Corporate Governance.....................................................     284
Four Principles of Governance..............................................................     285
Ethics in Corporate Governance...........................................................     285
      How to Develop Ethics in a Corporation.......................................     285
Corporate Accountability.......................................................................     286
Impact of New Technology.....................................................................     286
Corporate Leadership.............................................................................     287
Harmonization of Accounting Standards.............................................     288
      Economic Value Edition..................................................................     289
Investor’s Protection...............................................................................     289
Corporate Governance and its Attributes............................................     290
      Role of Shareholders in Corporate Governance...........................     290
      Shareholders’ Rights........................................................................     291
      Shareholders’ Role............................................................................     292
Board and its Accountability..................................................................     293
To Whom Does the Board Owe its Duty?.............................................     294
Disclosure of Annual Report to Shareholders
   in General Meeting..............................................................................     296
      Financial Disclosures.......................................................................     296
      Audit Committee and its Role.........................................................     297
Financial Services...................................................................................     298
      Changing Paradigms of the Financial Services............................     298
      Competitiveness at the Corporate Level........................................     299
Cases Related to Corporate Governance .............................................     299
Challenges...............................................................................................     300
Conclusion...............................................................................................     301
    20     Promoting Decent Work Agenda—A Human
             Rights Discourse in the Wake of Globalization
– Anuja S..................................................................................................                302
Setting the Tone......................................................................................     302
Decent Work—A Human Right.............................................................     303
Dissecting the Decent Work Concept in the Indian Scenario..............................     304
Operationalization of Decent Work Agenda—
   A Way Forward.....................................................................................     309
    21     Economic Liberalization and Impact on Human Rights
– Somkuwar Omprakash Digambar.....................................................                313
Introduction.............................................................................................     313
Liberalization of Services in the Developing World..........................     316
      Political Benefit................................................................................     316
      Political Risks of Trade Liberalization..........................................     316
International Trade Regulation, Human
   Rights and Development.....................................................................     317
      Developing States, GATT 1947 and the WTO Agreement............................     318
      Generalized System of Preference (GSP) and the
          Human Right to Development.....................................................     320
     Developing States the WTO and Human Rights
          Related Trade Measure.................................................................     321
Economic Liberalization and its Impact on Human Rights.................................     321
      Issue Arising from the Liberalization of
          Trade in Services...........................................................................     324
      Cross-Border Supply.........................................................................     325
      Consumption Abroad........................................................................     326
      Commercial Presence.......................................................................     326
                   Movement of Natural Person..........................................................     327
      Issues Arising from General Agreement on
          Trade in Services (GATS).............................................................     327
     Scope of GATS...................................................................................     327
Policy Recommendations.......................................................................     328
      Ensuring Equal Access for Basic Service......................................     328
      Ensuring Government Right and Duty to Regulate.....................     328
      Encouraging Interpretation of GATS that are
          Compatible with Human Rights..................................................     329
      Undertaking Human Rights Assessments
          of Trade Policies............................................................................     329
      Providing International Cooperation and Assistance..................     330
      Increasing Dialogue on Human Rights and Trade.......................     330
Part IV
International Trade Concerns
    22     Myanmar, Trips and Food Security
– Dilan Thampapillai............................................................................                 331
Introduction.............................................................................................     331
The Right to Food....................................................................................    332
TAPs as a Semicommons........................................................................     334
Agriculture in Myanmar........................................................................     337
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)......................................................     340
The Path Ahead.......................................................................................     344
Conclusion...............................................................................................     345
    23     Energy Security and Global Trade—
             The View from Oil Dependent Economies
– Elimma C. Ezeani ..................................................................................     346
Introduction.............................................................................................     346
Security in the Energy Trade................................................................     347
Oil Dependency and the Efforts at Resource Optimisation.................................     349
Oil Dependency and the Impact on Trade............................................     351
      Boosting Trade Capacity..................................................................     351
      Investment Choices—Developing Trade Sectors
          or Meeting Energy Demands.......................................................     352
      Oil and the Risks of Poor Trade Diversification...........................     353
Conclusion...............................................................................................     355
Recommendations...................................................................................     356
      Capacity Building Initiatives..........................................................     356
      Closer Integration at the Global Level..........................................     356
      Cheaper and Available Energy Supply..........................................     357
      Collaboration in Research and
          Development (R&D) Activity.......................................................     357
    24     WTO—Challenges, Approaches and Future Trend
– M.P. Chandrika....................................................................................                358
Introduction.............................................................................................     358
Principles of WTO...................................................................................     360
      Non-discrimination..........................................................................     360
      National Treatment..........................................................................     361
      Transparency/Market Access...........................................................     362
      Rule Based Trading System/Fair Competition..............................     362
      Ethos of the WTO..............................................................................     363
      India’s Approach to WTO.................................................................     365
Is WTO a Friend or Foe to India?..........................................................     367
Conclusion...............................................................................................     370
Suggestions..............................................................................................     371
    25     International Commercial Arbitration—
             A Tool to Regulate Global Trade and Commerce
M. Madhuri Irene ................................................................................     372
Introduction.............................................................................................     372
Legal Regime as a Controlled Mechanism...........................................     373
Commercial Arbitration—A Legal Penumbra.....................................     375
Formal and Informal Justice Systems..................................................     376
Pros and Cons of International Commercial Arbitration..................     377
Indian Legislation Relating to International
   Commercial Arbitration......................................................................     379
      Supportive National Arbitration Legislation................................     381
Indian Law on Arbitration—Foreign
   Awards and Enforcement....................................................................     382
Impact on National and International Trade......................................     385
Suggestions..............................................................................................     387
Conclusion...............................................................................................     388
    26     Third Parties Rights in the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism
– Bipin Kumar ..........................................................................................     389
Introduction.............................................................................................     389
The Existing Rights to Third Parties ...................................................     390
      Third Parties in Consultations........................................................     390
      Third Parties before the Panel........................................................     391
      Third Parties before the Appellate Body........................................     393
Third Party Rights—As of Now.............................................................     394
Enhanced Third Party Rights................................................................     395
Proposals for Enhancement of Third Party
   Rights by WTO Members.....................................................................     398
The Draft Text.........................................................................................     402
Implications of the Reforms..................................................................     405
India and the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism..........................     407
Conclusion and Suggestions..................................................................     408
    27     Regulating in the Shadow of International Trade Law
– Sam F. Halabi.......................................................................................                411
Introduction ............................................................................................     411
The Government of India’s Ministry of Health
   and Family Welfare and the United States’
   Department of Health and Human Services.....................................     413
      Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.........................................     413
      Department of Health and Human Services.................................     414
Regulating in the Shadow of International Trade Law.....................     416
      Public Health Mandates versus International
          Trade Obligations..........................................................................     416
      Approaches to Promulgating Regulations
          under International Trade Law...................................................     418
      Coordination......................................................................................     419
     Internal Agency Bureaucracy.........................................................     420
Conclusion...............................................................................................     422
    28     The Function of India’s Patent Institution
             to Promote Pharmaceutical Industry
– Ma Biyu                                                                                                      423
Introduction—Why Chinese Buy Medicines from India?..................     423
Comparison of Patent Systems between China and India.................     425
      Comparison of Drug Patent Right Obtainments...........................     425
      Comparison of Pharmaceutical Patenting Standards...................     426
      Comparison between Limitations to
          Pharmaceutical Patent Rights.....................................................     428
      Comparison between Stipulation Contents
          of Compulsory License.................................................................     429
      Comparison between Practices and
          Theories of Compulsory Licensing ............................................     430
      Comparison between Patent Infringement Regulations.............     432
      Comparison between Infringement Compensations....................     432
      Comparison between Exemption Conditions................................     433
Analysis of Impact on Pharmaceutical Industries
   by the Patent Systems in China and India........................................     435
Development Prospect of Patent System in India...............................     438
Conclusions..............................................................................................     440
    29     ‘Make in India’ Policy in the Era of Global
             Trade Regime—A Critical Analysis
– Annapurna Devi Munaganti.............................................................          442
Introduction.............................................................................................     442
A Critical Analysis of ‘Make in India’ Policy
   Implementation—Regulatory Framework.......................................     444
      The Foreign Trade Policies in India—Its Legal Validity...............................     445
Make in India—Opportunities and Challenges
   in the Era of Global Trade Regime....................................................     447
      Opportunities....................................................................................     447
      Challenges.........................................................................................     450
    30     Paradigm Shift of India’s Economic                 Policies and Institutional Reforms
– Sudeshna Das Sarkar.........................................................................                453
Introduction.............................................................................................     453
Role of Information Technology in Globalization..............................     454
Liberalization and Privatization in India............................................     456
Major Economic Policy Reforms............................................................     458
      Reduction of Tariff and Non-Tariff Barriers.................................     458
      Relaxation of FDI Rules..................................................................     459
      Banking Reforms..............................................................................     461
      Non-Resident Indian Scheme.........................................................     463
Present Dimension of Autonomy in India...........................................     465
Judicial Response Towards Economic Reformations in India.............................     467
Suggestive Measures..............................................................................     470
Conclusion...............................................................................................     471
    31     Article XX(b), GATT—A ‘Rule of Law’ Perspective
– Ann Thania Alex.................................................................................                472
Introduction ............................................................................................     472
Fairness in Trade....................................................................................     473
Equality of Opportunity and Distributive Justice..............................     474
Autonomy, Reciprocity and Trade Realities........................................     475
Sustainable Trade and Fairness in Trade............................................     476
Sustainable versus Fairness—Congruence and Conflict ..................     476
Trade Regulation and Trade Restriction..............................................     478
Article XX(b) and Disguised Trade Restriction...................................     480
Rule of Law in Trade..............................................................................     482
Dicey’s Rule of Law.................................................................................     483
Conclusion...............................................................................................     484
    32     To Reform or Not to Reform—The Looming
             Questions Facing WTO’s Future Credibility
– Rupsha Banerjee & Shilpa Gamnani.................................................                485
Introduction.............................................................................................     485
Are Reforms Necessary?.........................................................................     486
Reforms in the Light of Various Future Challenges—Role
   of the WTO and its Impact on Climate and Terrorism....................     492
      Climate and Multilateral Negotiations..........................................     492
      Recommendations.............................................................................     497
Conclusion................................................................................................   499

Sairam Bhat

Associate Professor of Law, National Law School of India University, Bengaluru

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