Book detail

Space Law
Space Law
The Emerging Trends
Author: B. Sandeepa Bhat
Edition: 1st
Year of publication: 2017
No. of pages: 349
ISBN: 9788171773312
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 990.00
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The entry into the outer space is undoubtedly the greatest achievement of the twentieth century. The pleasant event of space exploration has resulted in the rapid developments in scientific and technological field. But at the same time it carried number of problems requiring legal solutions. Consequently, the space law started to emerge as a separate branch of international law. The contributors have explored the possibilities of legal regulation of emerging trends in space activities through concerted efforts at both international and national levels. 

• Space & satellite insurance
• Space exploration & tourism
• Space habitation & transportation
• Public-private partnership & space cooperation
• Commercial mining & exploitation of space resources

Chapters
     1     Answering the Legal Challenges Posed
             by Recent Developments in Space Activities
             — B. Sandeepa Bhat
.................................................................. ......   1
Introduction.................................................................. 1
Private Space Financing.................................................. 2
Liability and Insurance in Private Space Activities........... .... 4
Commercial Space Tourism............................................. 6
Rights in Space Inventions............................................... 9
Property Rights and Resource Exploitation........................ 11
Space Dispute Settlement Mechanism............................. 14
Conclusion................................................................... 15
     2     Public-Private Partnerships for
             the Development of Space Activities
             — Eligar Sadeh.
......................................................................... ......   17
Introduction................................................................ 17
Public-Private Partnership Dynamics and Models............... 19
Contracting by Negotiations........................................... 22
Acquisition of Commercial Items.................................... 30
Lessons...................................................................... 37
Conclusions................................................................. 39
     3     Extraterrestrial Habitation and Space Law—
             A Socio-Legal Perspective
             — Sohini Banerjee.....
............................................................... ......   41
Introduction................................................................ 41
Extraterrestrial Real Estate and the Law........................... 44
The Legal Picture in the Indian Context—
  Article 246................................................................ 46
Emerging Legal Issues and Concerns............................... 48
Conclusion.................................................................. 49
     4     Regulatory Mechanism for the Exploitation
             of Natural Resources in Outer Space and
             and Celestial Bodies
             — Arindrajit Basu...
................................................................. ......   52
Introduction................................................................ 52
Recent Developments in the Commercial
  Space Sector.............................................................. 54
Theoretical Analysis of the Existing Legal
Regime on Non-Appropriation........................................ 56
Primer on Existing Legal Regime................................ 56
Interpretation of Ambiguous Terms............................ 58
Appropriation of Natural Resources............................ 61
Property Rights............................................................ 65
Regulatory Mechanisms................................................. 70
The Unclos Framework and an Inter Governmental
   Agency such as the International
   Seabed Authority....................................................... 70
A Credit Trading System................................................ 71
Applying the ISS Model................................................. 74
Conclusion.................................................................. 75
     5     Legal Protection to the Entrepreneurial
             Interest of the Private Players in the
             Commercial Mining of the Lunar Resources
             — Amrisha Tripathi      
                                                              ......   77
Introduction................................................................ 77
Space Mining Operation............................................ 78
Unstable Legal Framework........................................ 79
Economic and Technological Prospects of Mining............... 81
Near-Earth Asteroids as Alternatives to the Moon.............. 83
State Responsibility for Commercial
  Mining in Outer Space................................................. 86
Conclusion.................................................................. 91
     6     Space Tourism—Some Legal Implications
             — G.S. Sachdeva
........................................................................ ......   95
Introduction................................................................ 95
Transition to Space Tourism........................................... 99
Space Tourism—Vision to Reality.................................... 101
Technical Feasibility................................................ 102
Safety Standards.................................................... 103
Commercial Viability............................................... 103
Public Response..................................................... 104
Legal Implications....................................................... 105
Commercial Space Travel—Legal Implications.................. 107
Legality of Commercial Activities by
  Private Enterprise...................................................... 107
Determinate Liability and Standard Contract for
  Passenger Travel....................................................... 108
Safety of Space Travel................................................. 109
Tourists are not Astronauts............................................ 111
Need for Interterrestrial Travel Document...................... 112
Space Hospitality—Legal Implications............................. 113
Leases in Outer Space.................................................. 114
Governance and Public Order....................................... 116
Expectations of a Fare-paying Tourist.............................. 117
Security of space activities and space assets..................... 118
Space Tourism to Operate as Industry............................ 119
Conclusion................................................................. 119
     7     Regulating Space Exploration & Tourism—
             A Study of SpaceX and Blue Origin
             — Savithran Ramesh & Aditya Prasad 
                                 . 123
Introduction.............................................................. 123
The history of Space Law......................................... 124
Part I: The Growth of Privatisation in Space Industry—
A Look into SpaceX and Blue Origin............................... 127
SpaceX................................................................ 128
Blue Origin............................................................ 131
Part II: Inadequacy of Current Space Treaty Regime......... 131
Applicability of Treaty Regime to Private Enterprises.................... . 132
Rescue Agreement................................................. 133
Liability Convention................................................ 136
Moon Agreement................................................... 138
Part III: Possible Changes to Treaty Regime.................... 139
Conclusion................................................................. 142
     8     Regulating Space Tourism and Space Habitation—
             Significance of Sustainable Development Concept
             — Deva Prasad M.
...................................................................... ......   143
Introduction.............................................................. 143
Overview of Legal Issues Relating to Space Tourism.......... 145
Legal Regulation for the Safety of
  Outer Space Passengers......................................... 146
Legal Regulation Needed for the Purpose of
  Outer Space and Earth Environment Protection........ 148
Overview of Legal Issues relating to Outer Space
  Habitation and Space Settlement................................. 150
The Legal Issue of Right to Private Property
  in Outer Space..................................................... 150
The Legal Issue Relating to the Impact on the
  Outer Space Environment Due to the Space
  Settlement and Outer Space Habitation.................... 153
The Legal Issue Relating to Safety of the
  Human Life in the Outer Space............................... 154
Legal Regulation Needed for the Purpose of Ensuring
  Long-term Sustainable use of Outer Space..................... 155
Legal Concern Regarding Impact of Space Settlement
  on Outer Space Natural Resource Exploitation................ 155
Significance of Applying Sustainable Development
  Concept to Space Tourism and Space Settlement........... 156
Principle of Sustainable Use and
  Principle of Integration.......................................... 158
Principle of Inter-generational Equity and
  Principle of Intra-generational Equity....................... 159
Precautionary Principle............................................ 161
Principle of Common but Differentiated
   Responsibilities ................................................... 162
Procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment........ 163
Polluter Pays Principle............................................. 164
Principle of Good Governance and Participation.......... 165
Conclusion ................................................................ 166
     9     Obligation Towards Debris Remediation
             vis-a-vis Space Contamination and Fault Liability
             — Pranjal Srivastava
.............................................................. ......   168
Introduction.............................................................. 168
Obligation to Not Create Debris under
  Outer Space Treaty.................................................... 169
Obligation of States to Actively Remove
  Debris under Fault Liability Regime.............................. 170
Debris Mitigation and Debris Remediation....................... 171
Fault Liability under Article III of the
  Liability Convention................................................... 174
Determining Liability under Article III of the
  Liability Convention.................................................... 175
Causal Link between the Wrongfulness of
  the Act and the Damages Caused................................. 177
Presumption of Causal Link in Space Related Activities................... 178
Obligation to Mitigate Space Debris................................ 180
Conclusion................................................................. 182
   10     Liability Sharing Mechanism for Commercial
             Outer Space Activities in Different National Space
             Jurisdictions—A Comparative Study for
             Framework in India
             — Biswanath Gupta & K.D. Raju......
..................................... ......   184
Introduction ............................................................. 184
Different Nations and their Liability Regime..................... 187
India and Space Law................................................... 188
Limited Liability and National Space Legislation ............... 193
Compulsory Insurance................................................. 194
Asset Security and Cross-waiver.................................... 196
The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010................ 197
Conclusion................................................................. 198
   11     Space Insurance
             — Shraddha Srivastava & Sourav Kumar
........................... ......   201
Introduction.............................................................. 201
Evolution of Space Insurance Market............................ 202
Space Market Status................................................... 204
Risk Factors for Satellites Operation............................... 207
Loss of Fuel .......................................................... 207
Electrostatic Discharge........................................... 208
Solar Storms......................................................... 208
Collisions with Space Debris.................................... 208
Electromagnetic Interference................................. 208
Satellite Insurance...................................................... 208
(a) Property Loss................................................... 209
Pre-launch Insurance...................................... 209
Launch Insurance............................................ 210
Post-launch Insurance...................................... 211
(b) Third Party Liability........................................... 212
Recent Insurance Claims.............................................. 213
Liability of States under International Space Law.............. 213
Possible Coverage in Future.......................................... 214
Conclusion................................................................. 214
   12     Settlement of Disputes Arising in Space Activities
             — Bayar Goswami .
................................................... . 217
Introduction.............................................................. 217
Dispute—Subject matter & International Actors............... 219
Settlement of disputes of – “Outer Space Activities”
  or “Space Activities” or “Space Law”?....................... 219
International Actors Involved in Space
  Activities and Disputes thereof.................................... 223
Existing Law—Space for Binding & Mandatory
  Settlement Mechanism.............................................. 227
Provisions under Outer Space Treaty 1967...................... 228
                    (i)  Cooperation under Article III of the Outer
                          Space Treaty 1967 .............................................................229
                   (ii)  Consultation under Article IX and
                          Article XII of the Outer Space Treaty 1967........... 229
Provisions under Liability Convention 1972..................... 230
                    (i)  Is Settlement of Claim the only Kind of
                          Dispute in Outer Space Activity?.......................... 231
                   (ii)  Representation of Claims................................... 231
                  (iii)  Non-binding Decisions of Claims Commission....... 232
Provisions under Moon Agreement 1979........................ 233
Dispute Settlement Procedures—Options in
  Space Disputes......................................................... 234
Dispute Settlement under General International Law....... 235
                     (i)  Negotiation..................................................... 236
                    (ii)  Consultation................................................... 236
                   (iii)  Inquiry and Fact Finding................................... 237
                   (iv)  Mediation and Good Offices.............................. 238
                    (v)  Conciliation.................................................... 238
ILA’s 1998 Taipei Final Draft of the Revised
  Convention on the Settlement of Disputes
  Related to Space Activities......................................... 239
                     (i)  Applicability of the Convention........................... 241
                    (ii) Non-binding Dispute Settlement Procedures....... 242
                   (iii) Binding Dispute Settlement Procedures.............. 243
                   (iv) Establishment of International Space Tribunal
                           under the Convention...................................... 244
                    (v)  ............. Arbitral Tribunal under the Convention......   246
Permanent Court of Arbitration—Optional Rules
  for the Arbitration of Disputes Relating to
  Outer Space Activities................................................ 247
                     (i) Scope of Application........................................ 249
                    (ii) Party Autonomy, Number of Arbitrators
                           and Use of Scientific & Technical Expertise.......... 250
                   (iii)  Active Role of Secretary-General and the
                           International Bureau of the PCA......................... 251
                   (iv)  Confidentiality................................................. 252
Conclusion................................................................ 252
   13     Regional Approaches to Space Cooperation—
             Creation of SASA (South Asian Space Agency)
             — Venkatachala G. Hegde   
                                                     ......   254
Introduction.............................................................. 254
SAARC Framework..................................................... 258
Institutional Framework.......................................... 259
Space Programmes—Asymmetries within South Asia......... 261
SAARC and Space Treaty Regime ................................. 264
South Asian Space Agency—Evolving a Model.................. 267
Contours of SASA........................................................ 271
Conclusions................................................................ 271
Identifying Basic Principles to Create SASA................ 272
   14     Establishing International
             Space Organization—An Indian Vista
             — Malay Adhikari
.................................................... . 275
Introduction.............................................................. 275
History of Institutionalization in India............................. 276
Reasons for Institutionalization................................. 276
Steps of Institutionalization...................................... 277
(A) Beginning Years or Pre-ISRO Period......................... 277
Introductory Institutionalization by
  Prof. Meghnad Saha ............................................. 277
Institutionalization through IGY
  Programme in India.............................................. 278
Institutionalization by Sarabhai................................. 278
Direct Involvement of Government
  of India in Institutionalization................................. 279
(i)  DAE Phase................................................ 279
(ii) Incospar Phase.......................................... 280
(B) ISRO Period......................................................... 282
(C) Institutionalization by Non-governmental
   Organizations........................................................... 284
Society of India Aerospace Technologies
  and Industries (SIATI).......................................... 284
Confederation of India Industries (CII)..................... 285
Federation of Indian Chambers of
  Commerce and Industry (FICCI)................................ 285
Association of Geospatial Industries (AGI)................. 286
Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI)........... 286
Regional Institutionalization by India.............................. 288
Conclusion................................................................ 289
   15     Bangalore Declaration—A Beacon
             for National Space Legislation for India
             — Kumar Abhijeet
..................................................................... ......   291
Introduction.............................................................. 291
Why a National Space Legislation?................................. 292
Commercialization and Privatization of Space ............ 292
Safety and Security of India.................................... 293
Compliance with International Obligations and
  Constitutional Obligations ...................................... 294
Fundamental Need to Encourage Investors
  in Outer Space..................................................... 296
The need for ‘Rule of Law’ in Outer Space................. 296
Contents of National Space Legislation........................... 298
Space Governance................................................. 298
Licensing Conditions.............................................. 299
Monitoring of Space Activities.................................. 300
Liability for Damages.............................................. 301
Protection of Environment of Space......................... 302
Registration of Space Object.................................... 303
Indemnification  Factors......................................... 304
Insurance Coverage............................................... 305
Sale/Transfer of Space Objects................................ 305
Incidental Issues to Commercialization and
  Privatization of Space Activities .............................. 306
Conclusion................................................................ 306

B. Sandeepa Bhat

LLM, PhD, Professor of Law, W.B. National University of Juridical Sciences. Member, International Institute of Space Law, Paris, France.

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