Book detail

Goyle's Law of Easements & Licences
Goyle's Law of Easements & Licences
Author: Anindita Ganguly
Edition: 4th
Year of publication: 2016
No. of pages: 468
ISBN: 9788171773084
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 695.00
You pay 625.00
Related interest

The instant edition of this time-honoured work provides a comprehensive account of different issues on the subject. It throws light on incidents of easements, servient owner, customary easements, easement of necessity, quasi-easement, disturbance of easements, distinction between lease and licence, revocation of licence, injunction, profit a prendre, etc. It will be treated as an asset to a person interested in the subject.

• Distinction between lease and licence
• Servient owner
• Easement of necessity
• Profit a prendre
• Disturbance of easements
• Right to pollution-free water

Part 1
Easements
Chapter
       1        Introduction                                                                                           3-13
              Easement and servitude................................................................. 3
              Easement defined............................................................................ 4
              Background of Easements Act 1882 in India............................ 5
              Scope and applicability of the Act............................................... 8
              Savings............................................................................................ 10
              Construction of certain references to Act XV of 1877
                and Act IX of 1871 (s. 3)........................................................... 11
              Cognate Acts dealing with easement in India.......................... 11
              Scheme of the Act......................................................................... 13
       2        Of Easements Generally                  ...................................................... ....... 14-95
              Easement—definition of.............................................................. 14
              Dominant tenement and servient tenement............................. 15
              Easement under American law................................................... 15
              Easement—not proprietary right................................................ 16
              Claim of easementary right......................................................... 17
              Characteristic feature of an easement....................................... 17
              Essential characteristics................................................................ 18
              Existence of a dominant and a servient tenement.................. 19
              Meaning of “appurtenant”.......................................................... 20
                    Dominant tenement................................................................ 20
                    Servient tenement.................................................................... 21
              Easement to accommodate dominant tenement.................... 21
              Acquisition of right in easement.................................................. 22
              No acquisition of easementary right.......................................... 23
              Easement and co-ownership........................................................ 25
              Profit a prendre............................................................................... 26
              Dominant and servient owners to be different persons.......... 27
              Co-owners....................................................................................... 28
              Co-ownership and partnership.................................................... 30
                    Common passage.................................................................... 30
                    Common well........................................................................... 31
                    Common channel.................................................................... 33
                    Party wall................................................................................... 36
                    Co-parcenary property........................................................... 40
              Easement to be capable of forming
                subject-matter of grant............................................................... 42
              Essential qualities of easement................................................... 44
              Classification of easement........................................................... 44
              Positive easement and negative easement................................ 44
              Continuous and non-continuous (or discontinuous)
                easements...................................................................................... 46
              Apparent and non-apparent easements.................................... 46
              Easement of necessity.................................................................. 46
              Classification of easements according to duration................. 47
              Prescriptive easement.................................................................... 48
              Legal easement and equitable easement.................................. 48
              Equitable easements..................................................................... 48
              Easements and incidents of ownership...................................... 49
                    Right to build............................................................................ 51
                    Right to pollution-free passage of air................................... 52
                    Right to comfortable living.................................................... 52
                    Right to light and air................................................................ 54
                    Right to support........................................................................ 56
                    Right to pollution-free water.................................................. 59
                    Right to collect and dispose of surface and
                      percolating water.................................................................... 60
                    Right to flow of natural stream............................................. 62
                    Right to flow of water in undefined channels..................... 66
                    Right to use water of pond..................................................... 69
                    Rights of a riparian owner to use water............................... 69
                    Rights and obligations as between ryots in India and
                      State in matter of supply of water for irrigation............... 78
              Repair or alteration of watercourses.......................................... 86
              Navigation....................................................................................... 87
              Distinction between easement and other rights........................ 87
                    Easement and ownership....................................................... 87
                    Easement and licence............................................................. 87
                    Easement and local customary rights.................................. 88
                    Easement and profit a prendre.............................................. 89
                    Easement and way leave....................................................... 90
                    Easement and natural rights.................................................. 90
                    Easement and public rights.................................................... 90
                    Easement and restrictive covenant...................................... 91
              Concept of profit a prendre and its applicability
                under the Act................................................................................ 92
                    Profit a prendre......................................................................... 92
                    Profit a prendre appurtenant................................................. 93
                    Profit a prendre in gross.......................................................... 93
                    Classification of profits a prendre........................................ 93
                    Extinguishment of profits a prendre..................................... 93
                    Indian law on profit a prendre............................................... 94
       3        Imposition, Acquisition and Transfer of Easements..................................................... ..      96-211
A. Imposition
              Imposition of easements.............................................................. 96
                    ‘Imposed’—meaning of......................................................... 97
                    Constructive grant by acquiescence..................................... 97
                    Competent grantors/grantees................................................ 98
              Creation of easement.................................................................... 99
              Further easements........................................................................ 102
              Imposition by limited owner...................................................... 103
B. Acquisition
              Acquisition of easement ............................................................ 104
              Some illustrative cases   ............................................................. 106
                    Trespasser and easement..................................................... 106
                    Right of way under express terms....................................... 106
                    Right of way on transfer of tenement................................ 107
                    Use of passage........................................................................ 107
                    Easement of necessity.......................................................... 107
              Easements of necessity and quasi-easements........................ 107
                    Sweepers and scavengers..................................................... 111
                    Ways acquired by prescription in American law.............. 115
       3        Imposition, Acquisition and Transfer
                     of Easementscontinued
              Right of parking........................................................................... 115
                    Quasi-easements.................................................................... 115
                    Example of quasi easement................................................ 127
                    Artificial water course........................................................... 128
              Acquisition by prescription   ...................................................... 128
                    General..................................................................................... 128
                    Custom  and prescription..................................................... 128
                    Positive and negative prescription...................................... 129
                          Presumption of prescription........................................... 129
                    Prescription and adverse possession................................... 130
                    Section 4 vis-a-vis s. 15 of the Act...................................... 136
                    When property as Government property........................... 155
                    Persons claiming right of easement.................................... 157
              Rule for acquisition of such easements—
                prescriptive rights....................................................................... 157
                    Rule relating to right to access and use of light or air...... 157
                    Infringement of right to light................................................ 159
                    Rule relating to right of support........................................... 160
                    Rule relating to right of way................................................. 162
              Location of ways of necessity................................................... 171
                    Rule relating to other easements......................................... 171
              Exceptions .................................................................................... 182
              Nature of right on burial and cremation ground.................... 186
              Acquisition by lost modern grant.............................................. 188
              Customary easement.................................................................. 190
              Custom ......................................................................................... 190
              Local custom................................................................................ 190
              Right of privacy........................................................................... 196
              Right to other customary easement......................................... 203
              Dedication to public.................................................................... 207
                    Pleading and proof ............................................................... 207
C.  Transfer or Devolution or Disposition of Dominant Tenement
              Disposition of easement............................................................. 211
       4        Incidents of Easements                   ...................................................         212-246
              General rule................................................................................... 212
              Statutory incidents—use must be connected with
                enjoyment................................................................................... 213
              Mode of employment and right to alter it............................... 215
              Right to enjoy ancillary or accessory rights............................. 221
              Liability for expenses necessary for
                preservation of easement......................................................... 225
        4       Incidents of Easementscontinued
              Liability for damage for want of repair................................... 226
              Servient owner’s obligations....................................................... 226
              Extent of easements.................................................................... 229
                    Easement of necessity.......................................................... 229
                    Other easements..................................................................... 230
              Persons entitled to use right of way........................................... 234
              Liability and right to repair way................................................ 234
                    Public highway....................................................................... 235
                    Right to light or air acquired by grant................................. 238
                    Prescriptive right to light or air............................................. 238
                    Prescriptive right to pollute air and water.......................... 240
                    Right to pollute air................................................................. 240
                    Other prescriptive rights........................................................ 241
              Increase of easement.................................................................. 243
              Partition of dominant heritage................................................... 244
              Obstruction in case of excessive user....................................... 246
              Easement on easement............................................................... 246
       5        Disturbance of Easements                                                            ......... 247-270
              Right to enjoyment without disturbance................................. 247
              Interference with easement........................................................ 248
                    Reliefs that may be availed................................................. 250
              Suit for disturbance of easement ............................................. 250
                    Right to free passage of light and air.................................. 253
              Where cause of action arises for removal of support........... 259
              Injunction to restrain disturbance............................................. 261
                    Acquiescence.......................................................................... 267
              Damages in lieu of addition....................................................... 268
              Abatement of obstruction of easement................................... 270
        6      Extinction, Suspension and
                     Revival of Easements           .......................................................         271-292
A. Extinction
              By cause preceding imposition of easement.......................... 271
              By release...................................................................................... 273
              By revocation............................................................................... 277
              On expiration of limited period etc........................................... 277
              On termination of necessity....................................................... 277
              When it becomes useless............................................................ 279
              By permanent change in dominant heritage.......................... 279
              On permanent alteration of servient heritage by
                superior force.............................................................................. 281
              On destruction of either heritage............................................... 282
              By unity of ownership................................................................. 283
              By non-enjoyment...................................................................... 285
                    Continuous easements.......................................................... 285
                    Discontinuous easements..................................................... 286
                    Exception................................................................................ 288
              Of accessory rights....................................................................... 288
B. Suspension
              Servient owner not entitled to require continuance............... 290
C. Revival
              Extinguished easement............................................................... 291
              Suspended easements................................................................. 292
Part 2
Licences
       7        Licences—General Survey                                                                     295-317
              Nature and definition.................................................................. 295
              No legal right of licensee............................................................. 296
              Lease or license—factors that govern...................................... 297
Lease or Licence—Tests to Decide
              Formulated principles by the Supreme Court......................... 312
              Mining lease.................................................................................. 313
              Service occupation...................................................................... 313
              Life tenancy or permanent tenancy......................................... 314
              Types of licences.......................................................................... 315
              Bare licence................................................................................... 315
              Contractual licence...................................................................... 315
              Licence coupled with interest..................................................... 317
        8      Grant of Licences         ..............................................................         318-326
              Who may grant a licence............................................................ 318
              Granting permission to family members—whether license.. 319
              Grant may be express or implied.............................................. 320
              Renewal of licence....................................................................... 321
              Accessory licences....................................................................... 321
              Licence when transferable......................................................... 322
              Grantor’s duties............................................................................ 323
                    Duty to disclose defects........................................................ 323
                    Duty not to render property unsafe.................................... 324
              Rights of transferee of the licence............................................ 324
              Licensee to vacate property....................................................... 325
        9      Revocation of Licences                                                                               327-361
              General rule................................................................................... 327
              Exceptions..................................................................................... 333
                    Licences coupled with transfer of property....................... 333
                    When licensee executes work of permanent character .. 336
              Notice of revocation.................................................................... 348
              Rights of successor or transferee of licensor........................... 349
              Express or implied revocation................................................... 350
              Deemed revocation..................................................................... 351
              Licensee’s rights on revocation or eviction............................. 356
              Termination of licence................................................................ 359
              Licensee—not trespasser on termination licence................... 361
              Irrevocable licence....................................................................... 361
Appendices
Appendix
        1      The Indian Easements Act, 1882                      .....................................       365-388
             2      The Specific Relief Act, 1963                   ............................................     389-391
             3      The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908                                                                 392-395
             4      The Limitation Act, 1963               ...................................................     396-397
             5      The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973                      ............................     398-399
             6      The Transfer of Property Act, 1882                      .................................     400-401

Anindita Ganguly

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