Book detail

Goyle's Law of Specific Performance
Goyle's Law of Specific Performance
Author: S.K. Pathak
Edition: 5th Edition
Year of publication: 2020
No. of pages: 750
ISBN: 9788171773596
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1650.00
You pay 1518.00
Related interest

Specific performance, with its genesis in Equity and progression with contemporary desideratum, has come to pervade the domain of Civil Law, in particular, where the contractual obligations are flouted by way of breach of contractual stipulations. It prescribes the remedies to make good the loss suffered for the transgression of the terms of contract. ‘Ease of doing business’ is the catchphrase in the business world today where contractual relationships play a crucial role. But, the relief of ‘specific performance’ in vogue prior to the amendments in the Act, being a discretionary relief, was not sufficient enough to infuse confidence in the business community to do business in India.
 
Practical and user-friendly approach

The instant edition of this book is a thoroughly revised and up-to-date one incorporating recent legislative changes and judicial pronouncements of Supreme Court and High Courts, in addition to the cases from American and English laws to make the book practically useful for users.  Relevant and contemporary topics, such as Equity, Estoppel, Damages, Compensation, Restitution, Fraud, Pre-emption, Injunction, to mention a few.
 
New topics incorporated
It goes without saying that law is a dynamic subject. Therefore, recent changes, both legislative and judicial, have necessitated the inclusion of new topics touching upon the core of law of specific performance to make the present edition more pragmatic and effectively useful for the readers. Numerous topics, such as, substituted performance of contract, objective theory of contract, doctrine of mitigation, doctrine of mutuality, vicarious performance, concept of right to recover, power to engage expert by the court, to name but a few, along with the relevant topics in English and American laws have been discussed extensively to make the book more practical and useful.
 
Recent amendments included
 
To make the book up-to-date and comprehensive, the Specific Relief (Amendment) Act, 2018 has been extensively dealt with. Different topics of practical utility have been incorporated in the light of the recent amendments in the Act. The instant work is an asset to the library of a civil practitioner.

•  Substituted performance
•  Specific performance of Government contract
•  Specific performance on oral contract
•  Readiness & willingness
•  Undue influence & fraud
•  Damages & Compensation
 

Preface to the Fifth Edition ............................................................................................... ... [5]
Preface to the First Edition   ............................................................................................... ... [7]
Table of Cases                                                                                                                       . [27]
Part One
Specific Performance
Introduction   ....................................................................................................................... ...... 1
      Ubi jus, ibi remedium............................................................................................................ 1
      He who seeks equity must do equity..................................................................................... 3
      He who comes to equity must come with clean hands.......................................................... 4
      Equity treats as done what ought to be done......................................................................... 5
      Delay defeats equity.............................................................................................................. 6
      Specific performance—meaning of..................................................................................... 11
      Pre-requisites for a suit of specific performance................................................................. 12
             Existence of contract..................................................................................................... 12
             Good faith, diligence and equitable conduct................................................................. 14
             General considerations for remedy of specific performance........................................ 15
             Principles underlying specific performance.................................................................. 18
       Doctrine of mutuality.......................................................................................................... 18
             No specific performance by writ................................................................................... 20
      Conduct of party................................................................................................................. 20
      Specific performance as supplementary to Common Law remedy...................................... 20
      No specific performance through power of attorney........................................................... 21
      Specific performance on oral contract................................................................................. 23
      Suit for specific performance vis-a-vis suit  under s. 77 of the Registration Act 1908........ 23
      Specific performance of Government contract and Art. 299 of the Constitution................. 24
Part Two
Specific Performance of Contract
Chapter
      1    Contractual Obligations                                                                                               .... 27
           Objective theory of contract........................................................................................... 27
           Meaning and ingredients of contract.............................................................................. 28
           Is execution of a formal agreement necessary?............................................................... 29
           Five principles of interpretation of contract.................................................................... 30
           Classification of contracts.............................................................................................. 31
           Five conditions for implied terms of contract................................................................. 31
            Four elements of a contract under the Indian Contract Act 1872.................................... 31
                (1) Competency of the parties................................................................................... 32
                (2) Consensus........................................................................................................... 43
                (3) Consideration and object.................................................................................... 53
                (4) Certainty in contract............................................................................................ 63
           Contracts concluded & completed and contracts  incomplete or inchoate....................... 67
           Contracts concluded....................................................................................................... 67
                Agreement to sell—whether a concluded contract.................................................... 70
                Agreement to sell and power of attorney holder....................................................... 70
                Cancellation of agreement and specific performance of agreement.......................... 71
                Inadequacy of consideration..................................................................................... 71
           Contracts incomplete and inchoate................................................................................. 72
                Recession of agreement to sell.................................................................................. 73
           Contracts contingent and non-contingent....................................................................... 73
           Contract of transfer needs registration and
             specific performance of oral agreement........................................................................ 76
               Agreement of sale/sale by power of attorney/living will transfer................................ 79
               Oral contract partly performed.................................................................................. 80
           Refund of consideration when contract is void or impossible........................................ 81
           Contracts specifically performable—statutory provisions.............................................. 81
           Clause (a)—no standard of ascertaining actual damage.................................................. 83
           Clause (b)—inadequacy of reliefs by way of compensation in
             money for non-performance and legal presumptions................................................... 83
           Specific performance for delivery of goods................................................................... 86
           Specific enforcement of buyer’s duty to take delivery.................................................... 87
           Immovable property....................................................................................................... 87
           Movable property........................................................................................................... 89
           Ordinary article of commerce......................................................................................... 89
           Property of special value or interest to the plaintiff........................................................ 90
           Delivery of defective goods supplied to consumers....................................................... 91
           Where goods not easily obtainable in the market............................................................ 91
           Specific performance of a part of a contract (s. 12 of the Act)....................................... 93
                Relief after lapse of long time.................................................................................. 100
                Specific performance and refund of earnest money................................................ 101
           Other exceptions—specific performance of a part........................................................ 101
           Inability to perform a part emanating from one’s  
             own default or self-created disability.......................................................................... 104
                Alternative relief...................................................................................................... 106
           Inability to perform considerable part........................................................................... 107
           Relinquishment of part of claim................................................................................... 107
           Plea of part performance vis-a-vis specific performance.............................................. 108
                Absolute and unconditional willingness essential................................................... 111
                Doctrine of part performance................................................................................. 114
           Part performance—invocation by transferee qua plaintiff............................................ 115
           Pleadings and proof..................................................................................................... 115
           Part performance vis-a-vis adverse possession............................................................ 116
           Part performance—invocation by an obstructor........................................................... 116
           Contracts in respect of trusts—specific performance—enforceability.......................... 117
           Contracts not specifically enforceable.......................................................................... 118
           Specific performance when property agreed to be transferred
             later acquired and compensation awarded.................................................................. 119
           Where compensation is adequate.................................................................................. 119
           Contract for loan—money............................................................................................ 120
                Doctrine of promissory estoppel............................................................................. 123
           English law and American law—a comparison............................................................ 127
                Proprietary and promissory estoppels—contrast................................................... 129
           Contract for share......................................................................................................... 130
           Contract for goodwill................................................................................................... 131
           Contract for sale of debt............................................................................................... 131
           Contract for patent........................................................................................................ 131
           Agreement deed materially altered—bar of specific performance................................. 132
           Where court cannot enforce material terms of the contract........................................... 132
                (a)  Contract running into minute or numerous details.......................................... 132
                (b)  Contracts depending on personal volition
                       or qualification of the defendant....................................................................... 133
                (c)  Contract of such a nature that it cannot be specifically enforced...................... 145
           Contracts not specifically enforceable (English law).................................................... 145
                (1)  Contracts involving personal service................................................................ 145
                (2)  Adequacy of damages....................................................................................... 146
                (3)  Constant supervision........................................................................................ 146
                (4)  Conduct and hardship...................................................................................... 146
                (5)  Inadequacy or lack of consideration................................................................. 146
                (6)  Contract expressed  to be terminable............................................................... 147
                (7)  Impossibility..................................................................................................... 147
                (8)  Vagueness......................................................................................................... 147
                (9)  Mistake, misrepresentation and delay.............................................................. 147
           Contracts not specifically enforceable (American law)................................................. 147
           Specific performance of master-servant contract.......................................................... 148
           Master and servant relationship—tests......................................................................... 148
           Where contract in its nature determinable..................................................................... 149
           Contract of partnership................................................................................................. 150
           Power of attorney......................................................................................................... 151
           Power of attorney holder to depose in a suit for specific performance......................... 152
           Where specific performance involves continuous duty................................................ 153
           Arbitration agreements................................................................................................. 155
           Arbitrator’s power to award specific performance of contract..................................... 157
           Specific performance in building contract.................................................................... 157
      2    By and Against Whom Contracts Enforceable                                                             .. 158
           Statutory provision....................................................................................................... 158
           Plaintiff........................................................................................................................ 158
           Principles summarised................................................................................................. 159
                “Parties to the agreement”..................................................................................... 160
           Any party to the contract.............................................................................................. 160
                Any party to the contract—suit by benamdar.......................................................... 160
           Vague contract............................................................................................................. 161
           J&K Specific Relief Act 1920...................................................................................... 161
           Death of the agreement holder...................................................................................... 161
           Nominee of a party—specific performance at the behest of nominee........................... 162
           Co-contractees.............................................................................................................. 162
           Representative in interest or principal........................................................................... 163
           Purchasers—priority inter se....................................................................................... 163
           Joint promisees............................................................................................................ 164
           Hindu guardian—contract of sale or purchase on behalf of minor............................... 164
           Suit for specific performance against third party.......................................................... 166
           Seller of goods............................................................................................................. 167
           Decree-holder............................................................................................................... 167
           Beneficiary................................................................................................................... 167
           Assignment.................................................................................................................. 167
           Assignees—priority inter se........................................................................................ 169
           Contract of repurchase................................................................................................. 170
           Heirs—joint promisees................................................................................................ 170
           Sub-purchaser.............................................................................................................. 171
                Beneficiaries under settlement or compromise....................................................... 171
                Remainderman........................................................................................................ 172
                Reversioners........................................................................................................... 173
           Promoters..................................................................................................................... 173
                Amalgamating company......................................................................................... 173
                Pre-incorporation contracts................................................................................... 174
                Specific performance for enforcement of agreement to issue debentures................ 175
                Enforcement of contract by specific performance to take shares ........................... 175
                Hypothecation of bills of lading, specifically enforceable........................................ 175
                Contract to sell shares......................................................................................... .. 175
                Suit for specific performance.................................................................................. 175
                Two suits for specific performance......................................................................... 176
                Suit by one of joint promisees................................................................................. 176
                Suit for specific performance of contract of sale.................................................. .. 176
           Specific performance and injunction............................................................................ 176
            Specific performance and injunction
              (English law as to Sale of Goods)............................................................................. 176
           Parties to specific performance of contract................................................................... 177
           “Necessary party” and “proper party” in a suit for specific performance..................... 177
           Personal restrictions and bars to specific relief (ss. 16, 17 and 18).............................. 179
                Where plaintiff not entitled to recover damages...................................................... 180
                Where plaintiff incapable of performance etc.......................................................... 181
           Relief under Bengal Money Lenders Act in suit
              for specific performance under Or. 7, r. 7, CPC........................................................ 183
           Averment by minor or pauper...................................................................................... 184
           Essential terms............................................................................................................. 184
           Violation of essential part of contract........................................................................... 184
                Time is the essence of the contract.......................................................................... 186
           Time for performance of contract................................................................................. 187
           Specific plea to be made in averments.......................................................................... 187
           Oral agreement............................................................................................................. 188
           Suit based on unregistered document........................................................................... 188
           Readiness and willingness........................................................................................... 188
           Failure to aver and prove performance or readiness and willingness to perform.......... 189
                Pleading and proof................................................................................................. 190
                Obligation upon the court....................................................................................... 191
                Suit for specific performance of contract—
                  proof of readiness and willingness to perform..................................................... 191
                Ready and willing to perform.................................................................................. 192
           Ready and willing to perform—how to determine....................................................... 192
           Conduct of the parties.................................................................................................. 193
           Form of pleading—‘readiness and willingness’........................................................... 193
                Compliance with s. 16(c) of the Act......................................................................... 193
                Averment to be made in plaint................................................................................. 194
           Readiness and willingness—views of different High Courts....................................... 199
                Allahabad................................................................................................................ 199
                Andhra Pradesh...................................................................................................... 201
                Calcutta................................................................................................................... 202
                Gauhati................................................................................................................... 202
                Gujarat................................................................................................................... 202
                Himachal Pradesh.................................................................................................. 203
                Karnataka............................................................................................................... 203
                Kerala..................................................................................................................... 203
                Madhya Pradesh..................................................................................................... 203
                Madras................................................................................................................... 203
                Orissa..................................................................................................................... 204
                Patna....................................................................................................................... 204
                Rajasthan................................................................................................................ 204
                Some more examples.............................................................................................. 204
           Some more decisions of the Apex Court...................................................................... 206
                Specific performance decreed................................................................................. 206
           Agreement for reconveyance........................................................................................ 207
           Substantial question of law.......................................................................................... 209
                Specific performance denied................................................................................... 210
           Contract for supply of printed booklets........................................................................ 212
           Readiness and willingness—meaning and implications............................................... 212
           Financial readiness....................................................................................................... 214
           Burden of proof........................................................................................................... 214
           Proof of readiness and willingness to perform contract............................................... 215
           Limitation..................................................................................................................... 215
           Order under Or. 8, r. 10, CPC..................................................................................... 215
                Ability, readiness and willingness to perform......................................................... 215
           Lack of pleading of continuous readiness and willingness—plea in execution............ 216
                Specific pleading in plaint....................................................................................... 216
           Continuous readiness and willingness—issue and proof............................................. 216
           Continuous readiness and willingness and financial capacity to launch litigation......... 218
                Amendment of plaint............................................................................................... 218
           Waiver of plea of readiness and willingness in
              lower court—opportunity to amend........................................................................... 220
           Defendant willing to perform contract.......................................................................... 222
           Plaintiff must prove even if defendant refused to perform........................................... 222
           Continuous readiness and willingness admitted when in defence evidence.................. 222
           Readiness and willingness—interpretation of contract to accord with plea.................. 223
           Sufficiency of tender by vendor (Amendment law)..................................................... 225
           Absence of averment of readiness and willingness—agitated in appeal....................... 225
           Who can raise the plea of want of readiness and willingness.................................... .. 225
           Amendment of pleadings............................................................................................. 226
                General................................................................................................................... 226
           Amendment to include claim for possession................................................................ 228
           Amendment of plaint seeking recovery of possession
             of property beyond jurisdiction of the court............................................................... 229
           Suit for specific performance—amendment to
             base it on part performance ....................................................................................... 230
                Vendor warranting title erroneously or free from doubt........................................ 230
           Vendor having no marketable title................................................................................ 231
           Permission under Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act 1976.............................. 232
                Rule laid down in s. 17............................................................................................ 232
                Vendee’s remedy..................................................................................................... 232
           Non-enforcement except with variation........................................................................ 232
           Further liabilities.......................................................................................................... 234
                Defendant................................................................................................................ 237
                Party....................................................................................................................... 238
           Protection to bona fide purchaser................................................................................. 241
           Person having adverse possession............................................................................... 241
           Specific performance and third party............................................................................ 241
           Bona fide purchaser for value without notice............................................................... 242
           Good faith.................................................................................................................... 243
           Persons claiming title under the party subsequent to contract....................................... 243
           Some of several legal representatives of promisee 
             declining to get the contract performed ...................................................................... 245
           Exception to the rule—subsequent transferee
             —specific performance against ................................................................................. 245
           Conditions under s. 19(b)............................................................................................ 248
           Subsequent transferee and vendor—need of
             joining and remaining as parties................................................................................. 248
           Other illustrations......................................................................................................... 250
           Subsequent transfer—burden of proof of exception.................................................... 250
           Test to implead subsequent purchaser.......................................................................... 253
           Proof of notice sent by registered post......................................................................... 253
           Suit for specific performance of contract...................................................................... 258
           Meaning of ‘title’ under s. 19(b).................................................................................. 258
           Subsequent transfer during pendency of suit for specific performance........................ 258
           Meaning of bona fide purchaser................................................................................... 260
                Parties to the suit.................................................................................................... 261
                Effect of lis pendens................................................................................................. 261
           Addition of transferee pendente lite party in suit for specific performance................... 263
           Common grounds for refusing specific performance................................................... 264
                Lack of consideration ............................................................................................. 264
                Contract expressed to be terminable....................................................................... 264
                Goodwill................................................................................................................. 264
                Mistake, misrepresentation and delay..................................................................... 264
                Refusal of relief....................................................................................................... 264
                Moulding of relief.................................................................................................... 264
                Omission to claim relief of specific performance.................................................... 265
                Discretion of court.................................................................................................. 265
                Specific performance of contract and minor........................................................... 265
           Subsequent transfer and register on the date of suit—burden of proof........................ 265
           Agreement of sale—specific performance.................................................................... 266
           Attachment of agreement of sale.................................................................................. 266
           Attachment—subsequent to contract of sale................................................................. 267
                Prior to the contract................................................................................................ 267
           Suit for specific performance—cause of action............................................................ 268
           Suit for specific performance—duty of the plaintiff..................................................... 268
           Unregistered sale agreement in suit for specific performance....................................... 269
           Specific performance claimed on conditional letter of intent......................................... 269
           Suit for specific performance of agreement—ex parte decree—valid........................... 269
           Company...................................................................................................................... 270
      3    Defences under Law of Contracts                                                                               .. 271
           The provision............................................................................................................... 271
           Contractual capacity..................................................................................................... 271
           Contract vitiated by coercion, undue influence, fraud,
             misrepresentation or mistake—defence in suit
             for specific performance............................................................................................. 271
                Coercion................................................................................................................. 272
                Undue influence...................................................................................................... 272
                Fraud...................................................................................................................... 275
                Misrepresentation................................................................................................... 276
                Mistake.................................................................................................................... 278
           Mistake apparent on record.......................................................................................... 283
           Coercion, fraud, misrepresentation and undue influence—pleading............................. 283
           Want of consideration as defence in specific performance........................................... 286
           Consideration—bargain requirement............................................................................ 287
           Consideration and object.............................................................................................. 287
           Contract—executed consideration and executory consideration—contrast................... 287
           Certainty....................................................................................................................... 288
           Uncertainty as to parties............................................................................................... 288
           Uncertainty due to lack of consideration...................................................................... 289
           Uncertainty as to terms................................................................................................. 289
           Subject matters of specific performance....................................................................... 295
           Representation when gives rise to contract................................................................... 295
           Contracts containing option clause............................................................................... 296
           Rescission of contract.................................................................................................. 297
           Limitation on rescission of contract.............................................................................. 298
           Exercise of discretion................................................................................................... 298
           Bars to rescission (English Law)................................................................................. 298
           Agreements of reconveyance....................................................................................... 299
           Reconveyance or mortgage.......................................................................................... 302
           Reconveyance or loan.................................................................................................. 305
           Reconveyance or honourable pledge............................................................................ 307
           Plea of estoppel to resist specific performance............................................................. 308
           Pre-emption or right of first refusal.............................................................................. 309
           Incomplete or inchoate contract.................................................................................... 310
           Contingent contracts..................................................................................................... 310
           Contract depending on sanction of third party.............................................................. 312
           Time when essence of contract..................................................................................... 314
           Readiness and willingness........................................................................................... 320
           Doctrine of business efficacy....................................................................................... 321
           Principle of mutuality................................................................................................... 322
           Want of mutuality......................................................................................................... 322
           Insolvency.................................................................................................................... 323
           Frustration of contract.................................................................................................. 323
           Frustration of contract with an indemnity clause—enforceability ................................ 324
           Doctrine of frustration.................................................................................................. 325
           Doctrine of impossibility.............................................................................................. 326
           Test of “radically different”.......................................................................................... 327
           Acquisition of property agreed to be transferred—frustration of contract.................... 327
           Contract of sale............................................................................................................ 327
           Trustee—contract of sale.............................................................................................. 328
           Registered deed of reconveyance—effective dates of transfer...................................... 328
           Attestation distinguished from execution..................................................................... 329
           Deed—construction of................................................................................................. 330
           Further requirements and proofs for specific performance........................................... 332
           Limitation..................................................................................................................... 332
           Suit for specific performance—limitation..................................................................... 334
           Court-fees.................................................................................................................... 334
           Suit for specific performance and possession.............................................................. 335
           Separate court-fee for relief of possession—need of.................................................... 337
           Defence to action for calls on shares or specific performance...................................... 338
      4    Jurisdiction and Powers of Court        ....................................................................... .. 340
Part I
Substituted Performance of Contract
           Introduction.................................................................................................................. 340
           Legal and equitable rights............................................................................................. 340
           Law prior to amendment.............................................................................................. 342
           Background to the Specific Relief (Amendment) Act 2018......................................... 343
           Need for substituted performance of contract............................................................... 343
           Amended provision of s. 20 of the Act........................................................................ 344
           Analysis of s. 20 of the Specific Relief Act after amendment...................................... 344
           Notice........................................................................................................................... 345
           Section 20 of the Act whether prospective or retrospective.......................................... 345
           English law.................................................................................................................. 346
           Vicarious performance................................................................................................. 347
           Doctrine of mitigation in India law............................................................................... 347
           Section 40 of the Contract Act and substituted performance........................................ 348
           Concept of substituted performance is a modification of doctrine of mitigation........... 348
           Timely completion of contract...................................................................................... 349
           Section 20A of the Specific Relief Act......................................................................... 349
           Special Courts.............................................................................................................. 349
           Concept of right to recover .......................................................................................... 350
           Power to engage experts.............................................................................................. 350
Part II
Nature and Limit of Remedy
           Specific performance—equitable relief......................................................................... 354
           Plaintiff’s claims not bona fide..................................................................................... 358
           Relevant consideration for granting and refusing
             specific performance—moulding of relief ................................................................. 359
           Grant of decree for specific performance—Principles enunciated................................ 359
           Judicious exercise of discretion.................................................................................... 360
           Agreement incapable of specific performance.............................................................. 360
           Bar of civil court jurisdiction........................................................................................ 361
                Contract of personal service—maintainability of suit............................................. 361
                Declaration and permanent injunction in service matter........................................ 361
           Possibility of injury to third party................................................................................ 362
           Unfair advantage—ground for refusal of relief of specific performance...................... 362
           Relief of specific performance of contract—not proper................................................ 366
           Delay............................................................................................................................ 367
           Waiver.......................................................................................................................... 370
           Enforcement of contract against consent decree........................................................... 371
           Willingness.................................................................................................................. 372
           Hardship...................................................................................................................... 372
           Plea of hardship........................................................................................................... 377
           Inadequacy of consideration......................................................................................... 377
           Inequitable to enforce specific performance—section 20(2)(c).................................... 379
           Doctrine of mutuality................................................................................................... 381
           Specific performance not ordered—when (American law).......................................... 382
Compensation in lieu of substitution
of Specific Performance
           Compensation.............................................................................................................. 383
           Waiver.......................................................................................................................... 385
           Alternative relief........................................................................................................... 386
           Alternative remedy of compensation............................................................................ 386
           Compensation for delay............................................................................................... 386
           Amendment to incorporate claims for compensation
             and possession at any stage........................................................................................ 387
                Amendment of plaint seeking recovery of possession
                  of a property beyond the jurisdiction of the court................................................. 389
           Refund of consideration............................................................................................... 391
           Other relief in addition to specific performance............................................................ 392
                Refusal of relief........................................................................................................ 393
           Bar to sue afresh for damages after dismissal
             of suit of specific performance of contract................................................................. 394
           Limitation for suit for refund........................................................................................ 396
           Where contract provides for payment of liquidated damages....................................... 396
           Specific performance of agreement to sell.................................................................... 401
                Agreement to sell thika tenancy............................................................................... 401
                Agreement to sell and specific performance............................................................ 402
                Specific performance of shares of private company................................................ 402
                Contract for sale life estate..................................................................................... 402
                Contract of sale—entitlement to.............................................................................. 402
                 Agreement of sale.................................................................................................... 402
                 Agreement of sale signed by vendor only................................................................ 403
                Agreement of sale—breach of contract—clause providing damages...................... 403
           Bar of suits for compensation...................................................................................... 403
           Awards and testamentary direction.............................................................................. 404
           Rectification of instruments.......................................................................................... 404
           Rescission after decree of specific performance........................................................... 406
           Parties rescinding to do equity..................................................................................... 407
           Cancellation of instruments  ........................................................................................ 407
                When cancellation may be ordered......................................................................... 407
                Presumption............................................................................................................ 409
                Void document........................................................................................................ 409
                Cancellation of gift deed.......................................................................................... 409
                Cancellation of sale deed........................................................................................ 409
           What instruments may be partially cancelled................................................................ 410                         Adjustment of equities              411
           Declaration of status or right........................................................................................ 412
                Suit for declaration................................................................................................. 414
                Discretion of court and alternative relief................................................................ 416
                Suit for declaration relating to personal service..................................................... 416
                Declaration as to right of Watan property.............................................................. 417
                Adverse possession................................................................................................. 417
                Defendants as trespassers...................................................................................... 417
                Declaration of title.................................................................................................. 417
           Suit for declaration—defendant not signatory
             to the deed in question................................................................................................ 418
           Suit for declaration after acquisition.......................................................................... .. 419
                Suit for declaration of title—Locus standi............................................................... 419
                Suit for declaration of title—Amendment of plaint.................................................. 419
                Suit for declaration of sale of property as null and void......................................... 419
                Declaration as to termination of service is void...................................................... 419
                Declaration of title and recovery of possession ..................................................... 420
           Declaratory decree vis-à-vis the doctrine of res judicata.............................................. 420
                Suit for eviction and recovery of possession........................................................... 421
                Suit for declaration of title—tenability..................................................................... 421
                Burden of proof—suit for declaration of title.......................................................... 421
                Onus of proof—Revenue record, no proof of title................................................... 422
                Failure to claim further relief.................................................................................. 422
                Suit for declaration and injunction.......................................................................... 422
                Limitation to suit claiming joint ownership............................................................. 423
                Power to do justice under Article 142 of the Constitution....................................... 423
                Discretion to grant specific performance................................................................ 423
           Effect of declaration..................................................................................................... 423
           Injunction in suit for specific performance................................................................... 423
                Suit for declaration and injunction.......................................................................... 426
                Suit for bare injunction........................................................................................... 427
           Injunction restraining possession in a suit for
             specific performance.................................................................................................. 427
           Bare suit for injunction when contractee entered into possession................................. 427
           Specific performance and injunction............................................................................ 428
                Specific performance and insolvent defendant........................................................ 429
           Specific performance (American law).......................................................................... 429
           Necessary and proper party for suit for specific performance...................................... 429
           Joinder of parties coming under subsequent agreement
             of sale in pending suit of specific performance.......................................................... 431
                Suit for specific performance.................................................................................. 432
                Impleadment of legal heirs...................................................................................... 432
                Order of performance............................................................................................. 432
Decrees
           Decree—effect of......................................................................................................... 433
           Nature of a decree for specific performance................................................................. 434
           Decree when property conveyed to subsequent
             transferee with notice................................................................................................. 434
           Delivery of possession order in decree for specific performance................................. 434
           Rescission of contracts—(ss. 27 to 30)........................................................................ 435
           Composite order of specific performance and condition that in
             default to deposit consideration suit is to be dismissed—propriety............................ 436
           Decree vis-a-vis original contract................................................................................. 436
           Specification of date for depositing purchase money or
             other sum in the decree................................................................................................. 437
           Post-decree reliefs to plaintiffs..................................................................................... 437
           Fixation of time for deposit of balance consideration
             in decree and appeal—effect....................................................................................... 437
           Extension of time to deposit balance of consideration after decree............................... 438
           Extension of time for deposit for consideration when time fixed by consent .............. 440
           Delay in deposit for no fault of party........................................................................... 442
                To defendant........................................................................................................... 442
           Execution of decree...................................................................................................... 444
           Service of draft deed of transfer on the judgment
             of suit for specific performance.................................................................................. 444
           Stamp duty on a deed of sale executed as per
             decree of specific performance................................................................................... 446
Part Three
Specific Performance of Statutory Obligation
      1    Restitution                                                                                                                  .. 447
           Restitution—concept of................................................................................................ 447
           Restitution—meaning................................................................................................... 448
           Restitution vis-a-vis disgorgement............................................................................... 449
           Restitution and unjust enrichment................................................................................ 450
           Meaning of ‘benefit’.................................................................................................... 450
           Restitution provision.................................................................................................... 450
           A peep into history....................................................................................................... 451
           Scope of restitution...................................................................................................... 452
           Recovery of money paid.............................................................................................. 453
                 (1) Total failure of consideration............................................................................ 453
                (2) Partial failure.................................................................................................... 454
                (3) Money paid under a void contract..................................................................... 454
           Restitution—genesis of principle................................................................................. 454
           Restitution under s. 151 of CPC.................................................................................. 456
           Restitution by executing court...................................................................................... 456
           Appeal against the order of restitution.......................................................................... 456
           Person entitled to apply................................................................................................ 457
           Subsequent purchasers and doctrine of restitution....................................................... 457
           Judgment per incuriam and doctrine of restitution....................................................... 459
           Restitution—conditions................................................................................................ 459
           Right of auction-purchaser to apply for restitution....................................................... 463
           Restitution to trespasser............................................................................................... 464
           Restitution—competent court to make.......................................................................... 464
           Court to grant restitution ............................................................................................. 468
           Restitution under inherent power................................................................................. 468
           Restitution in L.A. Act proceeding............................................................................... 470
           Restitution—a proceeding in execution ....................................................................... 470
           Abatement of restitution in miscellaneous case............................................................ 470
           Reversal or variation of decree in revision................................................................... 471
           Restitution applies to ‘order’........................................................................................ 471
           No revision from order under s. 144, CPC.................................................................. 471
           Reversal in a proceeding under Or. 9, CPC................................................................. 471
           No restitution of money or property—when................................................................ 472
           Earnest money.............................................................................................................. 472
           Liability for restitution.................................................................................................. 472
           Reversal of decree in separate proceeding.................................................................... 473
           Possession through time barred execution case—restitution........................................ 473
           Restitution against tenant inducted bona fide................................................................ 473
           Restitution for erroneous delivery of possession 
             despite stay of execution in appeal............................................................................. 474
           Restitution of rent to tenant.......................................................................................... 474
           Forceful dispossession and restitution......................................................................... 475
           Restitution against heir, transferee, tenant, etc.............................................................. 475
           Transferee from decree-holder—restitution against
             —on decree being set aside........................................................................................ 475
           Restitution in respect of property demolished.............................................................. 476
           No restoration of suit under s. 144............................................................................... 476
           Person not party to appeal............................................................................................ 476
           Interest by way of restitution........................................................................................ 477
           Writ proceedings and s. 144, CPC............................................................................... 477
           Essence of restitution................................................................................................... 478
           Theoretical basis of restitution...................................................................................... 479
            Ultra vires demands by a public authority................................................................... 479
           Defences and bars to restitution................................................................................... 479
      2    Possessory Suit                                                                                                          .. 480
           General......................................................................................................................... 480
           Conduct of the parties.................................................................................................. 482
           Restitution of possession to dispossessed by summary suit........................................ 482
           Object of possessory suit............................................................................................. 483
           Possessory suit—adjudication of title.......................................................................... 483
           “Possessio contra omnes valet praeter eur cui ius sit possessionis”............................. 486
           Nature of possessory suit............................................................................................. 486
           Suit for possession ...................................................................................................... 487
           Settled possession........................................................................................................ 487
           Suit for declaration of title and possession................................................................... 489
           Limitation for suit for possession and declaration........................................................ 489
           Suit for possession by person wrongfully dispossessed.............................................. 490
           Suit against Government.............................................................................................. 490
           Tenant by sufferance.................................................................................................... 490
           Caretaker’s suit (Gratuitous possessee)....................................................................... 491
           Nature of pleadings...................................................................................................... 491
           Dispossession.............................................................................................................. 491
           Dispossession in excess of property decreed............................................................... 492
           Limitation for possessory suit...................................................................................... 492
           Suit for possession—maintainability without prayer for declaration of title ................ 492
           Suit for possession—maintainability............................................................................ 493
           Mandatory injunction in possessory suit...................................................................... 493
           Appeal against interim order........................................................................................ 494
           Can a suit for injunction based on title be converted 
             into a suit under s. 6 of the Specific Relief Act?......................................................... 494
           Receiver in possessory suit.......................................................................................... 496
           Injunction against the decree passed under s. 6 of the Act........................................... 496
           Injunction to trespasser against true owner.................................................................. 497
           Section 145, CrPC vis-a-vis s. 6 of the Specific Relief Act.......................................... 498
           Possessory suit—elements to be proved by the plaintiff.............................................. 498
           Defence in possessory suit........................................................................................... 500
           Interim restoration........................................................................................................ 500
           Without consent........................................................................................................... 501
           Otherwise than in due course of law............................................................................ 501
           Failure in possessory suit—remedy............................................................................. 502
           Distinction between a suit under s. 5 and a suit under s. 6........................................... 504
           Recovery of possession............................................................................................... 505
           Applicability of Art. 227 of the Constitution................................................................ 506
           Construction after dispossession.................................................................................. 506
           Second suit for mesne profit or damages..................................................................... 506
           Recovery of specific movable properties...................................................................... 507
           Recovery of specific or ascertained goods................................................................... 507
           Proprietary claims to possession or damages............................................................... 508
      3    Pre-emption     .......................................................................................................... .. 509
           Introduction.................................................................................................................. 509
           Right of pre-emption—object of.................................................................................. 510
           Nature and scope of right of pre-emption..................................................................... 510
           Right of pre-emption to co-sharers............................................................................... 514
           Pre-emption—estoppel defeating right of pre-emption................................................. 515
           Pre-emption under W.B. Land Reforms Act on
             transfer of a part of plot of land.................................................................................. 517
           Pre-emption sought for exceeding the ceiling limit....................................................... 519
           Composite application and single deposit for 
             pre-emption by two or more adjoining raiyats............................................................ 520
           Contiguous raiyat or bargadar of different district—pre-emption by......................... 520
           Adjoining raiyats two or more—effect........................................................................ 522
           Pre-emption of portion or share of family of undivided dwelling-house...................... 523
           Invocation of s. 4, Partition Act by a co-sharer as a defendant..................................... 524
           Undivided dwelling-house belonging to a family......................................................... 526
           Pre-emption application—averments needed................................................................ 527
           Waiver of right of pre-emption for co-sharer’s not
             objecting to sale to stranger........................................................................................ 527
           Stranger obtaining possession—effect on co-sharer’s
             exercising right of pre-emption.................................................................................. 527
           Dwelling-house—s. 4, Partition Act............................................................................ 528
           Relevant date of valuation—pre-emption under s. 4 of Partition Act........................... 529
           Family.......................................................................................................................... 530
           Family member—s. 4, Partition Act............................................................................. 530
           Pre-emption application by a family member co-sharer
             before final and after preliminary decree.................................................................... 531
           Stranger purchasing a share of the family dwelling-house after
             passing of final decree—whether pre-emption maintainable...................................... 531
           Pre-emptor transferring share before  implementation of pre-emption......................... 532
           Order of sale—when decree......................................................................................... 532
           Right to pre-empt existence till decision essential......................................................... 532
           Right of pre-emption under the Hindu Succession Act................................................ 533
           Limitation..................................................................................................................... 536
           Pre-emption under State statutes.................................................................................. 536
           Decree in a suit for pre-emption................................................................................... 536
           Execution of pre-emption decree by a  purchaser from pre-emptor.............................. 537
           Non-payment of pre-emption money as decreed—effect............................................. 538
           Payment into court of purchase money and costs
             —accrual of title to the pre-emptor............................................................................. 538
           Delivery of possession by executing court on pre-emption decree or order................. 538
      4    Injunctions                                                                                                                 .. 541
           Introduction.................................................................................................................. 541
           Injunction..................................................................................................................... 543
           Jurisdiction................................................................................................................... 544
           Nature of relief............................................................................................................. 544
           Relief akin to injunction............................................................................................... 544
           Prohibitory preventive injunctions—limitations........................................................... 545
           Prohibitory injunction relating to immovable property................................................. 545
           Reasons against granting prohibitory injunctions......................................................... 546
           Principles for grant of a temporary injunction.............................................................. 547
           Declaration of Khatedari rights and injunction............................................................. 549
           Perpetual injunction (ss. 38 to 42)................................................................................ 549
           Suit for declaration and permanent prohibitory injunction............................................ 551
           Decree for permanent injunction.................................................................................. 551
           Suit for permanent injunction....................................................................................... 554
           Permanent prohibitory injunction................................................................................. 556
           Suit for permanent injunction against dispossession.................................................... 557
           Construction done with the consent of the plaintiff...................................................... 557
           Suit for removal of unauthorised construction and permanent injunction..................... 557
           Suit for permanent injunction without possession........................................................ 557
           Injunction for protection of possessory title................................................................. 558
           Mandatory injunction................................................................................................... 558
           Interim mandatory injunction....................................................................................... 560
           Mandatory injunction to evict....................................................................................... 560
           Specific performance—mandatory injunction.............................................................. 560
           Execution of mandatory injunction............................................................................... 561
           Temporary mandatory injunction................................................................................. 561
           Mandamus to compel the Government to discharge statutory obligation..................... 565
           Injunction when refused............................................................................................... 567
           Injunctions to perform negative agreement................................................................... 569
           Mareva injunction ....................................................................................................... 570
           Anti-suit injunction...................................................................................................... 571
           Execution of injunction................................................................................................ 571
           Compensation for obtaining injunction on insufficient grounds................................... 572
Appendices
Appendix
       1    The Specific Relief Act 1963                                                                                    .. 575
       2    The Indian Contract Act 1872  .............................................................................. .. 596
       3    The Registration Act 1908                                                                                       .. 622
       4    The Transfer of Property Act 1882 ....................................................................... .. 625
       5    Plaints and Written Statements of Suits for
             Specific Performance under the Specific Relief Act 1963                                       .. 626
Index  …………………………………………………………………………………     643

S.K. Pathak

LLM West Bengal Judicial Service



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