Book detail

Alternative Dispute Resolution
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Along with the Gram Nyayalayas Act
Author: Sukumar Ray
Edition: 2nd Edition
Year of publication: 2020
No. of pages: 660
ISBN: 9788171773527
Format: Hardcover
Availability: In Stock
Price: 1095.00
You pay 1007.40


‘Justice delayed is justice denied’ is the verdict of our apex court which is a milestone of our justice delivery system. But unfortunately a huge number of cases are pending in different courts of our country. There is an urgent need to devise and evolve a new system to provide speedy justice to each person to attain our Constitutional goal. This system is known as the Alternative Dispute Resolution as it provides for settlement of disputes outside the court.

Subjects covered 

Arbitration and Conciliation is one of the vital limbs of Alternative Dispute Resolution. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act has been  amended in 2015 & 2019 and those have received proper treatment in this edition. Besides Arbitration, Negotiation, Minitrial, Lok Adalat, Lokpal, etc. are dealt with in an erudite manner. A separate chapter on ‘Plea Bargaining’ is included and it discusses its importance, limitation and future. An in-depth study of the Gram Nyayalayas Act has been made in the light of the judgments of the apex court and different High Courts.

Latest amendment

The Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 has recently got amended through the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act 2019 which completely overhauled the provisions relating to ‘Appointment of Arbitrator’. The Arbitration Council of India is being introduced having a lead role in the matter. Qualification & experience of an arbitrator and general norms applicable to Arbitrator are also included by this amendment. All such developments are aptly treated in this edition.

New inclusions 

Law is not static. It develops as and when the society demands. To meet the requirements of the legal fraternity, a separate chapter on ‘Online Alternative Dispute Resolution’ has been incorporated. Dar-ul-Qaza (Sharia Courts) as an Alternative Dispute Redressal Forum is newly included, which opens a new window to this subject. Another inclusion in this edition is ‘Early Neutral Evaluation’, which makes the work comprehensive and indispensable to the Bench and the Bar.

Topics discussed

All the important topics relating to ADR like the appointment of arbitrator, power and duties of an arbitrator, cyber arbitration, fast track arbitration, family court, fast track court, fast track procedure, injunction, maintenance and welfare of parents and senior citizens, mediator and Nyaya Panchayat are discussed at length. The book will be a faithful companion to lawyers, students and other stakeholders as well.

•  Online Alternative Dispute Resolution
•  Early Neutral Evaluation
•  Dar-ul-Qaza (Sharia Courts)
•  Fast Track Arbitration
•  Arbitration Council of India
•  Permanent Lok Adalat

Preface to the Second Edition................................................................. ........   [7]
Preface to the First Edition....................................................................... ........   [9]
Table of Cases...........................................................................................           [29]
Introduction ............................................................................................. ...... 1
Justification for ADR  ................................................................................... 2
Object  ........................................................................................................... 3
Advantages of ADR  ..................................................................................... 4
Goals  ............................................................................................................ 5
Themes of ADR movement  .......................................................................... 5
Meaning of Alternative Dispute Resolution  ................................................. 6
Characteristics of ADR system   ................................................................... 6
Importance of Alternative Dispute Resolution................................................ 7
Part one
Chapter
       1    Arbitration                                                                                     ...... 9
             Arbitration—meaning............................................................................ 9
             History of arbitration........................................................................... 11
             Arbitration during British period......................................................... 14
             Background of the new Act................................................................. 16
             Different kinds of arbitration............................................................... 17
             Statutory arbitration............................................................................. 17
             Arbitration agreement.......................................................................... 18
             Essentials............................................................................................. 19
             Test  .................................................................................................... 20
             Existence of dispute—pre-requisite for assumption of jurisdiction            22
             Arbitral award—must be certain  ........................................................ 22
             Mere signature—not a waiver  ........................................................... 22
             Attributes of arbitration clause ............................................................ 22
             Repudiation by one party—effect  ...................................................... 23
             Repudiation and breach of contract—effect  ....................................... 23
             Limitation Act—applicability .............................................................. 23
             Powers of court and powers of tribunal—distinction  ........................ 24
             Contract prevail over principles of natural justice ............................... 24
             Arbitration agreement not duly stamped—effect  ............................... 24
             Arbitration clause—an independent contract ...................................... 24
             Unregistered arbitration agreement—can be acted upon ..................... 25
             Not to decide question lack of jurisdiction as preliminary issue  ........ 25
             Decide plea of jurisdiction in first instance  ........................................ 25
             Conduct of arbitral proceedings .......................................................... 26
             Ad hoc arbitration  .............................................................................. 26
             Advantages ......................................................................................... 27
             Institutional arbitration ........................................................................ 27
             Advantages of institutional arbitration  ............................................... 29
             Supreme Court on institutional arbitration   ........................................ 31
             Distinction between ad hoc arbitration and institutional arbitration...... 33
             Procedure............................................................................................ 33
             Fixing of venue  ................................................................................. 36
             Waiver of forum selection clause  ....................................................... 36
             Seat of arbitration  .............................................................................. 37
             Preliminary meeting ............................................................................ 37
             Power to allow amendment  ............................................................... 38
             Prayer to produce document ............................................................... 39
             Commencement of arbitral proceeding—when  .................................. 39
             Court when entertain application after constitution of arbitral tribunal        39
             Matter considered by Supreme Court or High Court before appointment of Arbitrator                             40
             Application for appointment of Arbitrator—time limit ....................... 40
             Facts to be disclosed by prospective Arbitrator before his appointment     40
             Party when apply for interim measures  ............................................. 41
             Matters for which application made  ................................................... 41
             Recording of oral evidence  ................................................................ 41
             Time limit for arbitral award   ............................................................. 42
             Extension of time limit ........................................................................ 42
             Power of court .................................................................................... 43
             Award of cost  .................................................................................... 43
             Disposal of application of extension of period—mode and manner           43
             Procedure before Arbitrator  ............................................................... 43
             Consideration ..................................................................................... 44
             Consider evidence of one party—effect  ............................................. 45
             Arbitrator should follow principles of natural justice  ........................ 46
             Judge of choice of parties  .................................................................. 47
             Chief rules of natural justice  .............................................................. 47
             Not shut out one of the parties  ........................................................... 47
             Equal opportunity be given to each parties  ........................................ 48
             Fast track procedure............................................................................ 48
             Regime for costs.................................................................................. 49
             Termination of proceedings ................................................................ 50
             Parties agree to  termination of mandate ............................................. 52
             Withdrawal versus refusal .................................................................. 52
             Correction of award and interpretation of award  ............................... 52
             Additional award  ............................................................................... 53
             Award—final  .................................................................................... 53
             Setting aside of arbitral award by court  ............................................. 54
             Condonation of delay ......................................................................... 55
             Grounds  ............................................................................................ 55
             Public policy—meaning ..................................................................... 57
             An award is in conflict with the public policy of India  ...................... 57
             Set aside of award  ............................................................................. 58
             Issuance of prior notice  ..................................................................... 58
             Time limit of disposal of application  .................................................. 58
             Prejudice—not required to be proved  ................................................ 58
             Award not challenged on the ground of inadequacy  .......................... 58
             Procedure ........................................................................................... 59
             Enforcement of arbitral award ............................................................ 59
             Filing of application does not ipso facto render  the award unenforceable                                  59
             Stay of operation of arbitral award  .................................................... 59
             Stay of arbitral award for payment of money and principle to be followed                                60
             Preamble  ............................................................................................ 60
             Rules of construction of a statute......................................................... 60
             Power to refer parties to arbitration where  there is an arbitration agreement                              60
             Original arbitration agreement if not available  ................................... 62
             Conditions  ......................................................................................... 62
             Submission of first statement defence—impact  ................................. 62
             First statement on the substance of the dispute  .................................. 62
             Section 8 of 1996 Act and section 34 of 1940 Act—comparison  ...... 63
             Interim measures by court................................................................... 64
             How application made  ....................................................................... 64
       1    Arbitration—continued
             Stay under inherent power by court .................................................... 65
             Interim injunction ............................................................................... 66
             Injunction to restrain arbitration .......................................................... 66
             Enforcement of award of interest—statement of interest to be stated          67
             Limitation ........................................................................................... 67
             Comparison between Arbitration Act 1940 and Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996                             67
             Advantages of arbitration ................................................................... 70
             Duties of Arbitrator............................................................................. 71
             Power.................................................................................................. 73
             Breach of duties—consequence .......................................................... 77
             Instance of deliberate breach of duties  ............................................... 77
             Supreme Court on award of interest ................................................... 77
             Appointment of Arbitrators................................................................. 78
             Mode of appointment  ........................................................................ 81
             Section 11(5)—when invoked ............................................................ 82
             Application under s. 11(6)—when filed ............................................. 82
             Appointment of serving officer as Arbitrator...................................... 83
             Condition of neutrality and appointment of Arbitrator ........................ 84
             Ground raises doubt about independence or impartiality of Arbitrators     85
             Appointment of Presiding Arbitrator—procedure............................... 88
             Arbitrator cannot go beyond agreement............................................... 89
             Whether arbitration agreement is condition precedent  ........................ 90
             Principles ............................................................................................ 90
             Time limit  .......................................................................................... 93
             Dispute under Copyright Act—may refer to arbitration ..................... 94
             Relation between Arbitration and Conciliation Act and SARFAESI Act                   94
             Death of a party—effect  .................................................................... 94
             Government  as party   ....................................................................... 94
             Extent of judicial intervention  ............................................................ 95
             Appeal  ............................................................................................... 95
             Arbitration Council of India ............................................................ 95A
             Qualification and Experience of Arbitrator....................................... 95C
             General Norms applicable to Arbitrators.......................................... 95D
             Uncitral Model Law and Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996        96
             Comparison between uncitral Arbitration Rules 1976, Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 and UNCITRAL Model Law on Arbitration Law 1985 and English Arbitration Act 1996................................................... 96
             Arbitration in U.K. ............................................................................. 97
             Arbitration in Australia  ...................................................................... 99
             Arbitration in Canada ....................................................................... 100
             Arbitration in Sri Lanka .................................................................... 100
             Arbitration in USA ........................................................................... 100
       2    Conciliation                                                                                   ........   101
             Conciliation—meaning...................................................................... 101
             Arbitration and Conciliation—distinction.......................................... 102
             Conciliation and reconciliation—distinction...................................... 103
             Conciliation and mediation—distinction............................................ 103
             History of conciliation....................................................................... 103
             Salient features.................................................................................. 105
             Role of the Conciliator....................................................................... 109
             Kinds of Conciliation......................................................................... 110
             Advantages........................................................................................ 111
             Disadvantages................................................................................... 112
             Stages of Conciliation........................................................................ 112
             Conciliation in Japan......................................................................... 113
             Conciliation in Norway..................................................................... 116
             Comparison between uncitral Conciliation
             Rules 1980 and the Arbitration and
             Conciliation Act 1996........................................................................ 117
       3    Mediation                                                                                       .. 118
             Mediation—meaning......................................................................... 118
             Nature of mediation proceeding......................................................... 119
             Mediation and negotiation—distinction............................................. 120
             Arbitration and mediation—distinction.............................................. 121
             Essence of mediation ........................................................................ 122
             Mediator how assists negotiation process ........................................ 122
             When matter referred to mediation  ................................................... 123
             Mediation as effective means of settlement—reason ........................ 124
             Basis of mediation  ........................................................................... 125
             Role of Mediator  ............................................................................. 128
             Role of Mediator Evaluative.............................................................. 131
             Questions put by facilitative Mediator............................................... 133
             Ethics to be followed by Mediator  ................................................... 133
             Model standard of practice for Family and Divorce Mediation  ....... 134
             Termination of mediation................................................................... 137
             Litigation versus Mediation............................................................... 138
             Advantage of mediation .................................................................... 138
             Stages in preparation for Mediation................................................... 139
             Mediation Process............................................................................. 140
             Stages of Mediation........................................................................... 141
             Benefits of online mediation ............................................................. 142
             Limitations of online mediation ........................................................ 143
             Duty of court to provide mediation to the unwilling party................. 144
             Legality of referral of a case under s. 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act 1881 and its procedure                       145
             Non-compliance of mediation settlement—procedure to be followed         149
             Mediated Settlement Agreement—not a decree  ............................... 150
             Guidelines for Referral Judges  ........................................................ 150
       4    Lok Adalat.................................................................................... ........   154
             Lok Adalat—meaning  ..................................................................... 154
             Strategy—present day  ..................................................................... 154
             Nature   ............................................................................................. 155
             Goals of Justice  ............................................................................... 155
             Lok Adalat and Legal Services Authorities Act................................. 155
             Features of Chapter VI   ................................................................... 156
             Brief Scheme  ................................................................................... 157
             Creation of Lok Adalat—reason  ...................................................... 157
             Organisation of Lok Adalats ............................................................ 159
             Jurisdiction  ...................................................................................... 160
             Scope   .............................................................................................. 160
             Cognizance by Permanent Lok Adalat  ............................................. 160
             Adjudicatory function and Lok Adalat  ............................................ 160
             Reference   ........................................................................................ 161
             Award of Lok Adalat    .................................................................... 161
             Existence of dispute    ....................................................................... 162
             Claim for damages      ....................................................................... 162
             No power to try issue of fraud      .................................................... 162
             Appeal      ......................................................................................... 162
             Award—when can challenged     ...................................................... 162
             High Court—when can interfere      ................................................. 162
             Cognizance of cases by Lok Adalats     ............................................ 163
             Analysis       ..................................................................................... 164
             Function of Lok Adalat   .................................................................. 164
             Procedure     ..................................................................................... 165
             Lok Adalat—not a court  .................................................................. 165
             Settlement and compromise  ............................................................. 165
             Counsel cannot arrive compromise on behalf of the party  ............... 166
             Execution of gift deed  ...................................................................... 166
             Award passed violating regulations .................................................. 166
             Award of Permanent Lok Adalat  ..................................................... 166
             Dispute concerning pension  ............................................................ 166
             Dispute regarding succession certificate ........................................... 166
             Award of Lok Adalat........................................................................ 166
             Analysis  .......................................................................................... 167
             Enlargement of time  ......................................................................... 167
             Execution  ......................................................................................... 167
             Award executed by court if exceeds pecuniary limits  ...................... 167
             Compromise not signed by the parties  ............................................. 167
             No pecuniary limit   .......................................................................... 167
             Executing Court cannot vary the  terms of the decree ....................... 167
             Award passed by Lok Adalat in a case under s. 138, N.I.  Act  ....... 168
             No distinction between reference by Civil Court and Criminal Court         168
             Award of compensation without following  mandatory procedure—effect                                168
             Prayer to reopen award—not permissible ......................................... 168
             Powers of Lok Adalat or Permanent Lok Adalat .............................. 169
             Analysis     ....................................................................................... 169
             Need of Permanent Lok Adalat  ....................................................... 170
............ Pre-litigation Conciliation and Settlement
             Definitions......................................................................................... 171
             Analysis  .......................................................................................... 171
             Motor accident claim and Permanent Lok Adalat  ............................ 172
             Permanent Lok Adalat—whether a real court  .................................. 173
             Service—concept of   ....................................................................... 173
             Basis of settlement  ........................................................................... 173
             Special features   ............................................................................... 174
             Establishment of Permanent Lok Adalats  ........................................ 175
             Jurisdiction of Permanent Lok Adalat  ............................................. 176
             Limitation ......................................................................................... 176
             Matrimonial dispute and Permanent Lok Adalat  .............................. 177
             Comparison between Lok Adalat and Permanent Lok Adalat   ........ 177
             Procedure followed in Lok Adalat..................................................... 177
             Procedure followed by Permanent Lok Adalat ................................. 178
             Cognizance of cases by Permanent Lok Adalat................................. 179
             Analysis  .......................................................................................... 180
             Exclusion of jurisdiction of civil court  ............................................. 181
             Scope  ............................................................................................... 181
             Conditions  ....................................................................................... 181
             Not to determine nature of offence  .................................................. 182
             Role of Judges of Permanent Lok Adalat   ....................................... 182
             Constitutional validity of s. 22C(8)    ............................................... 182
             Procedure of Permanent Lok Adalat  ................................................ 183
             Composition  .................................................................................... 183
             Jurisdiction of Permanent Lok Adalat  ............................................. 183
             Award of Permanent Lok Adalat to be final...................................... 183
             Analysis  .......................................................................................... 184
             Ex parte award  ................................................................................. 184
             Award not executable  ...................................................................... 184
             Not bound by CPC   ......................................................................... 184
             Absence of appeal—not violative of Constitutional provisions   ...... 185
             Procedure   ....................................................................................... 185
             Conciliatary role of Permanent Lok Adalat   ..................................... 188
             Power of Lok Adalat    ..................................................................... 188
             Duties of Lok Adalat    ..................................................................... 190
             Reference by court—suo motu    ...................................................... 191
             Reference at pre-litigation case     ..................................................... 191
             Reference of writ petition to Lok Adalat     ....................................... 191
             Lok Adalat—no power to dispose of suit for non-prosecution      ... 191
             Right affecting minor      ................................................................... 191
             Can Lok Adalat recall its own order      ............................................ 192
             Order of Lok Adalat is subject matter of judicial review      ............. 192
             Merits of Lok Adalat......................................................................... 195
             Refund of court fee ........................................................................... 197
             Settlement by bank regarding recovery of debt  ................................ 197
             Award of Lok Adalat and Art. 227 of the Constitution..................... 197
             Redetermination of compensation...................................................... 197
       5    Code of Civil Procedure and Settlement of Dispute Outside the Court                                          198
             Settlement of disputes outside the court............................................. 198
             Reason for enactment........................................................................ 199
             Purpose............................................................................................. 200
             Object................................................................................................ 202
             Foundation of s. 89........................................................................... 202
             Duties of the court............................................................................. 202
             No negotiation between the parties—effect....................................... 203
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 203
             Stages of the procedure..................................................................... 203
             Lok Adalat and Legal Services Authorities Act................................. 206
             Section 89(2) and mediation.............................................................. 206
             Settlement through institutionalized mediation................................... 206
             Duty of Family Court........................................................................ 206
             Reference of dispute by civil judge—validity.................................... 207
             Direction of the court to opt for any mode of alternative dispute resolution                               207
             Appearance before the conciliatory forum or authority...................... 207
             Appearance before the court consequent to the  failure of efforts of conciliation                        208
             Consent of parties and reference of dispute to arbitration.................. 208
             Mechanical reference may be counter productive.............................. 208
             Reference of family dispute............................................................... 209
             Not to refer dispute of unwilling party.............................................. 209
             Reference of dispute to Arbitrator after matter was decided on merits—not proper                   209
             Settlement does not cause further litigation........................................ 210
             Relation—section 8 of the Arbitration and  Conciliation Act 1996 and s. 89, CPC                    210
       6    Plea Bargaining............................................................................ ........   212
             Meaning of plea bargaining............................................................... 212
             Law Commission of Canada—plea bargaining................................. 213
             Plea Bargaining................................................................................. 214
             Components of plea bargaining......................................................... 214
             Advantages of plea bargaining.......................................................... 215
             Limitations of plea bargaining........................................................... 217
             American system of plea bargaining.................................................. 219
             Utility of plea bargaining................................................................... 220
             U.S. Supreme Court on plea bargaining............................................ 220
             Reason for use of plea bargaining..................................................... 222
             Distinction between American system and Indian system................. 223
             Recommendation of the Law Commission of Canada on plea bargaining                  224
             Classification..................................................................................... 229
             Plea bargaining in India..................................................................... 230
             Scheme formulated by Law Commission for plea bargaining........... 235
             Statutory Provision—Chapter XXIA, Code of Criminal Procedure 1973                  236
             Application of the Chapter................................................................. 236
             Application for plea bargaining......................................................... 237
             Guidelines for mutually satisfactory disposition................................ 238
             Report of the mutually satisfactory disposition  to be submitted before the court                       238
             Disposal of the case........................................................................... 239
             Judgment of the court........................................................................ 239
             Finality of the judgment..................................................................... 240
             Power of the court in plea bargaining................................................ 240
             Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment                             240
             Savings.............................................................................................. 240
             Statements of accused not to be used................................................. 240
             Non-application of the Chapter.......................................................... 240
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 241
             Recommendation of Hon’ble Justice A.K. Ganguly Committee........ 242
             Success and failure of plea bargaining in India.................................. 244
             Future of plea bargaining................................................................... 244
       7    Compounding of Offences and the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973                                           247
             Compounding of offences—meaning................................................ 247
             Object................................................................................................ 247
             Principle............................................................................................ 248
             Guidelines......................................................................................... 248
             Statutory provision............................................................................ 249
             Compounding of offences................................................................. 249
             Duty of the court............................................................................... 254
             Who may apply................................................................................. 255
             When composition is made permissible............................................. 255
             When composition is not permissible ............................................... 255
             Effect of composition........................................................................ 255
             Withdrawal of a case and compounding of offence—distinction....... 255
             No compromise in case of rape......................................................... 256
             No embargo on power under s. 482, CrPC....................................... 257
             Continuance of proceeding after compromise.................................... 258
       8    Panchayat and Nyaya Panchayat ............................................. ........   259
             Panchayat—meaning......................................................................... 259
             Distinction—Jury System and Panchayat.......................................... 259
             History.............................................................................................. 259
             Panchayat system—after Independence............................................. 260
             Salient features of the Part-IX of the Constitution.......................... .. 261
............ Nyaya Panchayat
             Nyaya Panchayat—meaning.............................................................. 263
             Functions........................................................................................... 264
             History.............................................................................................. 264
             Manner of election............................................................................. 265
             Panchayat and Nyaya Panchayat—distinction................................... 266
             Views of Law Commission on Panchayat Court............................... 266
             Criminal Jurisdiction......................................................................... 269
             Basis of Nyaya Panchayat................................................................. 274
             Law Commission of India—its view................................................. 275
             Provision of Appeal.......................................................................... 277
             Provision for Revision...................................................................... 277
             Evaluation—working of Nyaya Panchayat........................................ 278
       9    Fast Track Court.......................................................................... ........   280
             Historical retrospective...................................................................... 280
             Law Commission of India—recommendation................................... 282
             Fast Track Court for Sessions’ Triable Cases................................... 283
             Supreme Court on Fast Track Court.................................................. 283
             Views of Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then PM................................... 287
             Views of Hon’ble CJI....................................................................... 287
             Malimath Committee on arrear of cases............................................. 288
     10    Fast Track Arbitration................................................................. ........   289
             Meaning............................................................................................ 289
             Features of Fast Track Arbitration..................................................... 289
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 289
             Representation by counsel................................................................. 291
             Written notes of arguments or oral arguments................................... 291
             Conduct of proceedings..................................................................... 291
             Parties to be bound by the procedure and time schedule.................... 292
             Consultation of experts...................................................................... 292
             Position after Amendment Act 2015................................................. 293
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 294
             Time limit.......................................................................................... 294
             Extension of time............................................................................... 295
     11    Lokpal ........................................................................................... .. 296
             Lokpal—meaning........................................................................... 296
             Historical retrospective...................................................................... 296
             Reason for establishment of ombudsman.......................................... 298
             Need for Lokpal—why..................................................................... 299
             Brief history of Lokpal in India......................................................... 300
             Salient features of the Lokpal Bill 1985............................................. 303
             Features of Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013................................... 305
             Absence of primacy of opinion of Chief Justice of India or his nominee   308
             Non-availability of Leader of Opposition.......................................... 308
             Effect of Amendment made to Prevention of Corruption Act............ 308
             Workings........................................................................................... 308
    12    Negotiation  .................................................................................... 310
             Meaning............................................................................................ 310
             Climate.............................................................................................. 311
             Classification..................................................................................... 312
             Distributive negotiation and interest based  negotiation—distinction          313
             Competitive negotiation and cooperative  negotiation—distinction.... 313
             Stages................................................................................................ 314
             Characteristics................................................................................... 316
             Advantages........................................................................................ 316
             Drawbacks........................................................................................ 316
    13    Minitrial ........................................................................................ .. 318
             Minitrial—meaning........................................................................... 318
             Purpose............................................................................................. 318
             Characteristics................................................................................... 319
             Matters required to be considered...................................................... 319
             Conduct of minitrial........................................................................... 320
             Matters relevant to non-binding evaluation........................................ 322
             Advantages........................................................................................ 323
             When minitrial is resorted to.............................................................. 324
     14    Family Court under Family Courts Act 1984............................ ........   325
             Reason for enactment........................................................................ 325
             Nature................................................................................................ 325
             Establishment of Family Court.......................................................... 325
             Powers of Family Court.................................................................... 326
             Enhancement of maintenance  ........................................................... 327
             With respect to the property of the parties—implication  .................. 327
             Interim relief ..................................................................................... 327
             Adjournment..................................................................................... 327
             District Court—meaning of............................................................... 327
             Application of Evidence Act ............................................................. 327
             Limitations ........................................................................................ 328
             Duties of Family Court ..................................................................... 329
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 329
             Appointment of Judges .................................................................... 331
             Qualification for appointment of Judge  ........................................... 331
             Selection criteria of appointment of Judges ...................................... 332
             Age of retirement .............................................................................. 332
             Salary of the Judges ......................................................................... 332
             Jurisdiction........................................................................................ 332
             Declaration of illegitimacy of child  .................................................. 333
             Circumstances related to matrimonial  relationship—implication   .... 333
             Dispute relating to adoption   ............................................................ 333
             Marital status   .................................................................................. 334
             Custody of children    ....................................................................... 334
             Suit relating to joint family property    .............................................. 334
             Negative declaration    ...................................................................... 334
             Irretrievably broken down of marriage—not a ground of divorce  ... 334
             Suits and proceedings   ..................................................................... 335
             Civil court    ...................................................................................... 335
             Evolve own procedure    ................................................................... 336
             Advantage of Family Court    ........................................................... 336
             Manner of recording of evidence    ................................................... 338
             Provision of CPC—not strictly applicable    ..................................... 339
             Family Courts Act and Hindu Marriage Act     ................................ 340
             Temporary stay of couple and jurisdiction     .................................... 340
             Overriding effect       ........................................................................ 340
             Appeal       ........................................................................................ 340
             Nature of appeal        ........................................................................ 341
             Order under s. 125, CrPC ................................................................ 341
             Period of limitation............................................................................ 341
             Computation of period of appeal  ..................................................... 341
             Limitation.......................................................................................... 341
             Revision—when not permissible  ..................................................... 342
             National Human Rights Commission ............................................... 342
             Function  .......................................................................................... 342
     15    Maintenance Tribunal and the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act 2007                                            344
             Scope................................................................................................. 344
             Object................................................................................................ 344
             Who can claim maintenance............................................................... 345
             When maintenance is permissible...................................................... 345
             Maintenance...................................................................................... 345
             Welfare measure................................................................................ 345
             Who can make application................................................................. 346
             Obligation of the children or relative................................................. 346
             Quantum of maintenance................................................................... 346
             Maintenance as monetary relief......................................................... 346
             Direction to hand over possession of property.................................. 346
             Overriding effect............................................................................... 347
             Constitution of Maintenance Tribunal............................................... 347
             Forum................................................................................................ 347
             Procedure.......................................................................................... 348
             Power of the Tribunal........................................................................ 350
             Appellate Tribunal............................................................................. 351
             Right of appeal.................................................................................. 351
             Right of legal representation.............................................................. 351
             Application—who can file................................................................. 351
             Right of appeal by daughter-in-law................................................... 351
             Period of limitation............................................................................ 351
             Procedure....................................................................................... .. 352
             Advantages of the Act....................................................................... 353
             Father is a pension holder.................................................................. 354
             Will.................................................................................................... 354
             Transferee—meaning........................................................................ 354
             Jurisdiction of civil court barred........................................................ 354
     16    Online Alternative Dispute Resolution..................................... ........   355
             Advantages of cyber arbitration ........................................................ 357
             Challenges in cyber arbitration  ........................................................ 359
             Principles .......................................................................................... 362
             Transparency..................................................................................... 363
             Independence    ................................................................................. 363
             Consent  ........................................................................................... 364
             Stages of an ODR proceeding  ......................................................... 365
             Scope of ODR process  .................................................................... 365
             Commencement of ODR proceedings............................................... 365
             Duties of neutral  .............................................................................. 367
             Future of cyber arbitration in India  .................................................. 367
             Conclusion  ...................................................................................... 369
     17    Early Neutral Evaluation (ENE).................................................. ........   371
             When can be resorted to  .................................................................. 371
             Advantages ....................................................................................... 372
             Mode of appointment of evaluator .................................................... 372
             Procedure  ........................................................................................ 372
             Early Neutral Evaluation and Arbitration—distinction ..................... 373
             Early Neutral Evaluation and Mediation—distinction........................ 374
             Early Neutral Evaluation and section 89, CPC—relation  ................. 374
             Future in India  ................................................................................. 374
     18    Dar-ul-Qaza (Sharia Courts) as Alternative  Dispute Redressal Forum                                           378
             Dar-ul-Qaza—legal validity  ............................................................. 379
             Dar-ul-Qaza as alternative dispute resolution forum  ........................ 379
             Social impact   .................................................................................. 380
             Opinion not enforceable   ................................................................. 381
             Rename of Fatwa court—an argument  ............................................ 382
     19    Future and Prospects of the  Alternative Dispute Resolution System                                            384
             Modes of resorting to ADR.............................................................. 386
             As a part of judicial process ............................................................. 386
             Cases outside the scope of ADR Process.......................................... 390
             Law Commission of India—view..................................................... 390
             Relation—ADR System & Court System......................................... 391
             ADR movement—evaluation............................................................ 392
Part two
The Gram Nyayalayas Act 2008.............................................................. ........   396
        Historical perspective............................................................................. 396
        Advantages............................................................................................. 397
        Criticism of the Act—powers................................................................. 398
        Reasons for enactment............................................................................ 399
        Features of Gram Nyayalayas Bill ...................................................... .. 400
The Gram Nyayalayas Act 2008
        Object of statement and reasons............................................................. 402
        Rules of construction of a statute............................................................ 402
        Rules of interpretation............................................................................ 403
        Intention of Legislature........................................................................... 404
        Proviso................................................................................................... 405
        Purpose.................................................................................................. 405
        Explanation............................................................................................. 406
        Object..................................................................................................... 406
        Preamble................................................................................................. 407
        A definitional clause............................................................................... 408
        Impact or use of definition clause........................................................... 408
        Character ............................................................................................ .. 408
        Include and definition clause.................................................................. 408
        How interprete........................................................................................ 409
        Appointment after consultation............................................................... 410
        Object of consultation............................................................................. 410
        Scope of s. 4........................................................................................... 411
        Scope of s. 5........................................................................................... 411
        Qualification........................................................................................... 411
        Code of Criminal Procedure and Gram Nyayalayas Act—comparison........   411
        Scope of s. 7........................................................................................... 412
        Scope of s. 8........................................................................................... 412
        Object..................................................................................................... 412
        Procedure............................................................................................... 412
        Scope of s. 9........................................................................................... 413
        Object..................................................................................................... 413
        Scope of s. 10......................................................................................... 414
        Scope of s. 11......................................................................................... 414
        How take cognizance.............................................................................. 415
        Presentation of complaint....................................................................... 415
        Jurisdiction to try civil suits.................................................................... 415
        Jurisdiction in regard to specific performance of contract....................... 416
        Pecuniary jurisdiction............................................................................. 416
        Manner of institution of suits................................................................. 416
        Dispute pertaining to use of way—not under jurisdiction of Gram Nyayalaya                               416
        Scope of s. 14......................................................................................... 418
        Applicability of Limitation Act............................................................... 418
        Gram Nyayalaya and Code of Criminal Procedure 1973........................ 419
        Scope of s. 16......................................................................................... 420
        Object..................................................................................................... 420
        Conditions.............................................................................................. 420
        Procedure............................................................................................... 420
        Scope of s. 17......................................................................................... 421
        Applicability........................................................................................... 422
        Non-obstante clause............................................................................... 422
        Powers of the Judicial Magistrate of the first class under the Code of Criminal Procedure                             422
        Importance of s. 18 of the Act................................................................ 423
        Anatomy of s. 18 or s. 23 ...................................................................... 424
        Scope of s. 19......................................................................................... 426
        Procedure............................................................................................... 426
        Procedure of summons trial.................................................................... 428
        Comparison between the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Gram Nyayalayas Act 2008                           428
        Plea bargaining—meaning...................................................................... 430
        Law Commission’s view—plea bargaining............................................ 431
        Procedure............................................................................................... 432
        Limitations of plea bargaining................................................................ 435
        Scope of s. 21......................................................................................... 436
        Scope of s. 22......................................................................................... 437
        Review and powers of Gram Nyayalaya................................................ 437
        Section 22(2) and judgment.................................................................... 437
        Scope of s. 23......................................................................................... 438
        Scope of s. 24......................................................................................... 440
        Object..................................................................................................... 440
        Payment of court fees............................................................................. 440
        Gram Nyayalayas Act 2008 and Code of Civil  Procedure—distinction         441
        Scope of s. 25......................................................................................... 444
        Guiding principles.................................................................................. 444
        Factors to consider provision mandatory or directory............................ 445
        Execution................................................................................................ 445
        Duty....................................................................................................... 446
        Computation of Limitation...................................................................... 446
        Purpose.................................................................................................. 446
        Scope of s. 27......................................................................................... 446
        Scope of s. 28......................................................................................... 447
        Ground................................................................................................... 447
        Procedure............................................................................................... 447
        Scope of s. 29......................................................................................... 447
        Admission of evidence........................................................................... 448
        Facts to be considered to admit evidence................................................ 448
        Analysis................................................................................................. 448
        Scope of s. 31......................................................................................... 448
        Nature..................................................................................................... 449
        Essentials of oral evidence...................................................................... 449
        Evidence by affidavit.............................................................................. 449
        Object..................................................................................................... 450
        Scope of s. 33......................................................................................... 451
        Requisite of appeal................................................................................. 451
        Law Commission of India—its view...................................................... 451
        Restriction.............................................................................................. 452
        Gram Nyayalayas Act and Code of Criminal Procedure—comparison........   453
        Appeal—meaning................................................................................... 456
        Nature..................................................................................................... 457
        Scope—appeal ....................................................................................... 457
        Right of appeal—when taken away........................................................ 457
        Second appeal......................................................................................... 457
        Essentials of appeal ............................................................................... 457
        Comparison—Gram Nyayalayas Act and Code of Civil Procedure....... 458
        Scope of s. 35......................................................................................... 461
        To whom directions issued..................................................................... 461
        Public servant and Government servant—distinction............................. 461
        Scope of s. 36......................................................................................... 462
        Prosecution of Judges and public servants............................................. 462
        Public servant—meaning..................................................................... .. 464
        Judges—whether public servant............................................................. 465
        Applicability—s. 197, CrPC.................................................................. 465
        Protection—when available.................................................................... 467
        Official duty—meaning.......................................................................... 467
        Scope of s. 37......................................................................................... 468
        Scope of s. 39......................................................................................... 469
        Power of High Court to make rules........................................................ 470
        Code of Civil Procedure 1908................................................................ 470
        Power of certain High Courts to make rules........................................... 470
        Power of other High Courts to make rules............................................. 470
        Rules to be subject to approval............................................................... 471
        Matters for which rules may provide...................................................... 471
        Power of High Courts to make rules as to their original civil procedure         472
        Scope of s. 40......................................................................................... 473
        The First Schedule.................................................................................. 473
        The Second Schedule............................................................................. 475
Appendices
Appendix
      1    National Litigation Policy 2010 ........................................................ .. 479
      2    Uncitral Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration......... ........   491
      3    Uncitral Conciliation Rules 1980.................................................. ........   509
      4    The icadR Arbitration Rules 1996................................................... ........   515
      5    The ICADR Conciliation Rules 1996................................................. ........   546
      6    Rules & Procedures for Mini-Trial ..................................................... ........   563
      7    Civil Procedure Alternative Dispute Resolution and Mediation Rules 2006                    577
      8    The Commercial Courts Act 2015..................................................... ........   593
      9    The Commercial Courts (Pre-Institution Mediation and Settlement) Rules 2018                                             595

Sukumar Ray

LLM, Additional District & Sessions Judge, Darjeeling

The book will be a faithful companion to lawyers, students and other stakeholders as well.



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